User Tools

Site Tools


world_war_ii

World War II

World War II (abbreviated WWII or WW2), or the Second World War, was a worldwide military conflict. The war is generally described as having begun in 1939 and as having ended in 1945 although events such as the Spanish Civil War are often viewed as precursors. This global conflict split the majority of the world's nations into two opposing alliances: the Allies and the Axis, most notably National Socialist Germany. The conflict enveloped much of the globe and resulted in the deaths of tens of millions of people. The war continues to have an impact on the contemporary world.

Revisionist and other not politically correct views


See also: [http://www.whale.to/b/jewish_hostility_q.html][http://www.sweetliberty.org/issues/wars/witness2history/10.html">File:jewsdeclarewar.jpg|thumb|right|300px|Daily Express, '''24 March 1933'''. "Judea Declares War On Germany: Jews Of All The World Unite In Action".

See also: [http://www.whale.to/b/jewish_hostility_q.html][http://www.sweetliberty.org/issues/wars/witness2history/10.html

]

organizer of Allied black propaganda and psychological warfare. The statement appeared in book by a German attorney according to which the statement occurred during a meeting with Delmer after the war and in response to a remark that now, after the end of hostilities, it was time to stop the propaganda and permit peaceful co-existence between the people of the world based on the truth. The book was withdrawn from circulation and prohibited in Germany by a German court because of the quoted statement.<ref name=gr1>Holocaust Handbooks, Volume 15: Germar Rudolf: Lectures on the Holocaust—Controversial Issues Cross Examined 2nd, revised and corrected edition. http://holocausthandbooks.com/index.php?page_id=15</ref><ref>an admission of anti-German WWII atrocity propaganda. http://forum.codoh.com/viewtopic.php?t=3562</ref> See also Allied psychological warfare.]]

The noncontroversial and politically correct views on World War II can be found in numerous easily available sources and will not be restated here. In general, critics have argued that official history is written by the victors and may have various problems.

Revisionist and other not politically correct views on WWII have been on topics such as:

See also World War II.

Literature

Fair Use References are embedded in the above article as footnotes.

European history Wars World War II

American American conflicts British Canadian Europe German Italian Japanese

Zweiter Weltkrieg Teine maailmasõda Segunda Guerra Mundial Második világháború Втора светска војна Druhá svetová vojna Andra världskriget


Snippet from Wikipedia: World War II

World War II (often abbreviated as WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from more than 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 70 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. Tens of millions of people died during the conflict due to genocides (including the Holocaust), premeditated death from starvation, massacres, and disease. Aircraft played a major role in the conflict which included the use of terror bombing, strategic bombing and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is generally said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom. From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Poland, Finland, Romania and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, and the Fall of France in mid-1940, the war continued primarily between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, and the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history. This Eastern Front trapped the Axis, most crucially the German Wehrmacht, in a war of attrition. In December 1941 Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U.S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers quickly declared war on the U.S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Japan soon captured much of the Western Pacific, which was originally perceived by some in the region as liberation from Western dominance, but the public opinion turned against them within weeks due to their excessive brutality. The Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway; later, Germany and Italy were defeated in North Africa and then, decisively, at Stalingrad in the Soviet Union. Key setbacks in 1943—which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, and Allied victories in the Pacific—cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944 the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reversals in mainland Asia, in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands.

The war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945. Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August, respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by the Allies, and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and against the Japanese.

World War II changed the political alignment and social structure of the globe. The United Nations (UN) was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts; the victorious great powers—China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States—became the permanent members of its Security Council. The Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century-long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia. Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery and expansion. Political integration, especially in Europe, began as an effort to forestall future hostilities, end pre-war enmities and forge a sense of common identity.

World War II was a global set of conflicts, beginning in 1931 in Asia, 1935 in Africa, and 1939 in Europe, all lasting until 1945, in which the Allied powers (led after the Fall of France by the British Commonwealth, and including the United States, the Soviet Union, the Republic of China, among many other nations), completely defeated the Axis Powers (led by Nazi Germany, and including Italy, Japan, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria). Although Japan's war against China began in 1937, the main conflict started in September 1939 when Germany and the Soviet Union divided Poland; Britain and France then declared war on Germany.

The conflict was the deadliest in human history with estimated deaths ranging from 50 million to over 70 million soldiers and civilians.<ref>http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/warstat1.htm#Second</ref> It ended with the Soviet Union dominant in a part of Central Europe and all of Eastern Europe, and the U.S. and its allies dominant in Western Europe, a part of Central Europe and Scandinavia, setting the stage for the Cold War.

Causes

War Begins in Europe

, Poland was partitioned with Germany and the USSR each occupying 200,000 square kilometers.]] :See also: Molotov-Ribbentrop pact

In the immediate run up to WWII, there were frequent reports of trespassing Polish troops. On August 31, 1939 German covert operatives staged a fake attack by Polish troops on a German radio station. WWII started on September 1, 1939, when German troops invaded Poland. Hitler justified this as a defensive act, pointing to the frequent border incidents, and said famously that from this moment on Germany would strike back.

The major tactical innovation of the war was the use of combined arms warfare, typified by the German doctrine of blitzkrieg. In this style of warfare armor, infantry, artillery and air power (see Luftwaffe) all coordinate to achieve overwhelming superiority at point on the enemy lines. Armor and fast-moving infantry units then exploit the gap and penetrate deep behind enemy lines. The objective is to cause a widespread collapse of the enemy's ability to fight. It was particularly effective during the early stages of the war, before the Allies developed effective countermeasures. On September 17, 1939, Poland was invaded from the east by Hitler’s ally, Stalin.

In 1939-1940, eastern Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Bessarabia were invaded and annexed by the Soviet Union.

War in the West

Once the invasion of Poland was complete, German forces regrouped while French and British forces remained on the defensive, leading US commentators to dub it the Phoney War. May 10 1940 made clear that the war was real, as Germany invaded France, occupying neutral countries such as the Netherlands, Luxembourg and Belgium in the process. Resistance by the British and French armies proved ineffective, and France was soon surrendered. British and French troops were routed and evacuated mainland Europe at Dunkirk. France was divided into the northern Occupied France and the collaborationist Vichy regime in the south of France, including Corsica.

The collapse and occupation of France, together with Germany's non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union,<ref>Celebrations Marking 60 Years Since the End of World War II, Pavel Vitek, Russkii vopros - Studies, No. 1 2005. Translation from Russian.</ref>, Germany's alliance with fascist Italy and an expansionist Japan, the benevolent neutrality of fascist Spain, and the fact that little of Europe was outside Axis control, led many to assume that Britain had been defeated. Indeed it would appear that the seemingly foolish decision of the relatively weak Britain to continue the war took the Axis powers off guard. This decision ensured the remaining British Empire was still involved in the war, with Japan threatening many British possessions in Asia.

In 1940 Denmark and Norway were invaded by German forces, to preempt a British occupation of Norway and occupy its coastline and ports to be used by the Kriegsmarine. Norway also contained a source of Heavy water, potentially crucial in the construction of an atomic weapon. The operation was successful, but losses were heavy, especially to the Kriegsmarine. This was soon followed by the British troops invited by Iceland and American occupation of Greenland. (The goal was to prevent any increase in the range of German air and submarine activity, brought about the occupation of these lands - and of the Azores at the request of the Portuguese Government.)

With Britain the sole opposing European nation, the Battle of Britain commenced. The Luftwaffe attempted to achieve aerial dominance over the south of Britain, in order to allow a sea based invasion of the British Isles to proceed. From 10th July to the end of October the Royal Air Force and the Luftwaffe fought for dominance; the resilience of the RAF, which counted in its ranks also Commonwealth personnel, US volunteers and Polish and Czech exiles, and the use of radar and its associated early warning systems, had forced a rethink of German tactics. It was the first significant setback for the Germans in the War. They now concentrated on the great population centers, especially London, hoping that huge civilian casualties would weaken morale and lead to a lessening of the war effort by the populace. The period that followed, popularly known as the Blitz, lasted into May 1941. Around 40,000 civilians and civil defense workers died; but the Germans failed to reach their objectives and their resources were soon diverted to the Eastern front as Hitler began concentrating on the impending invasion of the Soviet Union.

With the pressure off their airbases the RAF was now able to increase its nightly raids on industrial sites in Germany and occupied lands. Because of the inability to correctly target these sites, the raids soon turned into “area bombing”, and German civilian casualties rose. These raids were to reach further into Germany as the war progressed and were greatly increased when American bombers began their sorties.

Finnish Wars

The Soviet Union invaded Finland, a neutral, on November 30 1939. This conflict came to be known as the “Winter War”. Despite the overwhelming numbers of the Red Army, the Finnish resistance was strong and the battle was hard fought before the Soviet army took control. Outside powers (including the U.S.) considered intervention to help Finland; only a little aid trickled in and Finland was forced to sue for peace. The peace treaty signed in March 1940 favored the Soviets, but they paid heavily for their victory with 200,000 dead. Finland lost 25,000 dead, and had to absorb 400,000 refugees from areas turned over to the Soviets. In 1941 Finland joined Germany in attacking the Soviets, in the “Continuation War” (1941-44), but lost again. An armistice in Sept. 1944 stabilized the border, using March 1940 lines; in addition Finland had to pay heavy reparations and had to remain neutral in the Cold War.<ref> Roger R. Reese, “Lessons of the Winter War: a Study in the Military Effectiveness of the Red Army, 1939-1940,” Journal of Military History 2008 72(3): 825-852 </ref>

Soviet-German War

1941 marked the major turning point in the war in Europe, when the Germans undertook Operation Barbarossa - the invasion of the Soviet Union. Stalin was repeatedly informed by his own spies and anti-German countries that Germany was about to attack; he rejected the accurate reports and paid dearly for the blunder.

, Stalin, and Churchill on portico of Russian Embassy in Teheran, during conference — Nov. 28 - Dec. 1, 1943.]] In June–behind schedule because of diversions in the Balkans–the Germans launched their massive war against the Soviet Union (known as the “Great Patriotic War” in Russia). It was by far the largest, bloodiest, and most decisive phase of World War II. Outside observers in the first few months figured that Germany would win easily. But the Nazi armies were split three ways, logistics became worse and worse as distances grew, and none met their objective by the time the extreme Russian winter of 1941-42 set in. Blitzkrieg had failed against the Soviets, and the Germans lacked the resources to fight a long war against a country with such vast areas and so many more people. The Luftwaffe, which promised to overcome the slowness of ground travel, failed to provide adequate support and was soon matched and outnumbered by the Soviet air force.<ref> The best studies of this theater are by David Glantz</ref>

In the third year of war Germany began to suffer from a lack of important resources such as oil. Hitler therefore ordered the German army to take the city of Stalingrad and the oil fields of Baku in South Russia. The operation failed after the 6th German army was encircled in Stalingrad and completely annihilated. The Battle of Stalingrad marked a turning point in the war and the Soviet Union started launching their own offensives. After a time of comparatively slow progress, the brilliant Soviet officer, Konstantin Rokossovsky, engineered “Operation Bagration”, named-so after the Napoleonic Russian hero. The operation was extremely successful for the Soviets, leading to around 600,000 Soviet casualties and over 500,000 German casualties, including over 60,000 German vehicles and tanks. Even the Germans' best officer, Erich von Manstein, couldn't turn the situation around. Finally, in 1945, Soviet troops stormed Berlin, and forced Nazi Germany into capitulation.

Far East

After Pearl Harbor, the Japanese juggernaut seemed unstoppable. In the south, they conquered the Philippines, the oil-rich Dutch East Indies, Malaysia, and extended their reach as far as the Solomon Islands. In the west, they seized Burma and the vital port at Rangoon, and even attacked British forces at Ceylon. The Japanese empire now reached as far as Wake Island in the east and the Aleutian Islands to the north. Attacks on Japanese targets, including the Doolittle raid, boasted American morale, but did little material damage. In May 1942, Japanese forces were finally halted at the Battle of the Coral Sea, which cost the Americans a precious aircraft carrier, but saved southern New Guinea. At the Battle of Midway a month later, the Japanese lost four of their best carriers, suffering a blow to their sea power from which they never recovered.

The Americans took the offensive in August with a landing on the island of Guadalcanal. The overall American offensive strategy was two-pronged. Forces in the south advanced up the Solomon island chain and New Guinea, while in the central Pacific, Marines took island after island, including Tarawa, Eniwetok, Saipan, and Guam. The two lines of attack came together at the Philippines.

Integral to the strategy was the policy of island hopping. Many Japanese strongholds were bypassed, allowing the American forces to concentrate on more strategically significant islands. For example, Truk and Rabaul were home to major Japanese air and naval bases, but once the bases were neutralized, there was no reason to take on the troops there. This policy not only saved thousands of American (and Japanese) lives, it shortened the war by at least several months.

The American invasion of the Philippines took place in late October of 1944 when Marines landed on Leyte Island. A few days later, the US Navy shattered what was left of Japanese naval power in the Battle of Leyte Gulf. The Japanese fought hard, however, and Leyte took two months to secure. When the Americans landed on the other islands, they found the troops there equally unwilling to retreat, but with American superiority in almost every area, the outcome was never really in doubt. Manila was captured by March, and the American position had become solid enough that leaders could start preparing for the final stage: the invasion of Japan. The first step was taken when the island of Okinawa was captured in June after two months of heavy fighting. Operation Olympic, the invasion of Kyushu, was scheduled for November 1945, followed by Operation Coronet, the invasion of Honshu, in March of 1946.

The Japanese, soldiers and civilians alike, were expected to put up a fierce defense. Army Chief of Staff George C. Marshall believed that Japan would fight to the last man, and insisted on preparing for a land invasion of Japan with an army of 2,000,000 men anticipating a tremendous number of casualties. Some analysts estimated the number of projected casualties from Operation Olympic alone at 250,000 dead and wounded.<ref>Historical Atlas of the U.S. Navy, by Craig L. Symonds, the Naval Institute, 1995</ref> For this reason, Washington strongly requested the Soviets declare war on Japan. At the Potsdam conference in mid-July 1945, Stalin told President Truman the Soviets would declare war on Japan but would not give a firm timetable.<ref>Wheeler (1983) p. 58</ref> (This was the last of the four “Allied” conferences, taking place in mid-July 1945; the other three were: the Tehran Conference from November 28 to December 1, 1943; the Cairo Conference from November 22 to November 26, 1943; the Yalta Conference from February 4 to February 11, 1945.)

Japanese capitulation

After the successful atom bomb test in the U.S., President Truman was left with the immense task of deciding what to do with the power of the atomic bomb. Truman assembled a committee to advise him. The committee recommended the bomb should be used on the Japanese Empire mainland to save American lives and produce maximum shock to try to convince the Japanese to surrender.<ref>Wheeler (1983) pp. 58-60</ref> Therefore, on August 6, 1945, a B-29 Superfortress, the “Enola Gay” piloted by Paul Tibbet, dropped an atomic bomb (now called a nuclear weapon) on Hiroshima. Japan did not respond, so on August 9, “Bocks Car”, a B-29 piloted by Frederick C. Bock dropped the second atomic bomb on Nagasaki.<ref>Wheeler (1983) pp. 94-101</ref>

The Soviet Union declared war on Japan at midnight August 8, 1945, in response to the American requests and in a last-minute grab for the spoils of war. It invaded Manchuria and Korea with 1.6 million troops; the Japanese army disintegrated. The Soviets captured 600,000 military and civilian prisoners of war; most of whom never returned home again.<ref>Wheeler (1983) p. 156</ref> It was no longer possible for the Imperial Army to defend the emperor. On August 15, 1945, Emperor Hirohito by radio broadcast announced Japan would accept the terms of the Allies, unconditional surrender.<ref>Wheeler (1983) pp. 165-167</ref> By follow up message, the Japanese government stated they were surrendering with the understanding the Emperor would remain on the throne and would not be hung as a war criminal. Washington agreed, saying the authority of the emperor would be “subject to the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers.” On September 2, 1945, the Japanese Emperor formally surrendered all Japanese forces to the Allies in a famous ceremony aboard the battleship USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay. This was the ending of World War II, after six years almost to the day.

Effects of war on empires

:The Red army conquered practically everything east of the “Iron Curtain,” destroying independent national governments and making them all subservient to Moscow. The US grudgingly tolerated this imperialism until 1947, when it was Greece's turn. Then the US drew the line and adopted a policy of containment. Because of the geography of war, Yugoslavia and Albania escaped the Red Army. They fell under the control of independent Communists–Yugoslavia received American support, and Albania turned to Red China for help against the Soviets.

:The war effectively bankrupted Britain, which soon gave up India (which then included Pakistan and Ceylon) and many of its other colonies.

  • French Empire

:France saluted its overseas Empire as the savior of France, and wanted control back. That led to nasty large scale wars in Algeria and Vietnam, which France lost.

  • the Netherlands and Indonesia

:The Dutch returned to the Dutch East Indies to face an insurrection they could not handle. Dutch acknowledged in 1949 the sovereignty of Indonesia, a non-Communist state.

  • Supremacy of the USA in the Western World

:The war left the U.S. with a vastly stronger economy than anyone else. To save on budget deficits the military was demobilized, but the long-term strategy was in confusion after Roosevelt's death.

See also

Land war

Air war

Homefronts

Leaders

Further reading

For a more detailed guide, see Bibliography of World War II

  • Dear, I. C. B. and M. R. D. Foot, eds. Oxford Companion to World War II (in Britain titled Oxford Companion to the Second World War (2005; 2nd ed. 2009). the best reference book; excerpt and text search
  • Times Atlas of the Second World War (1995)
  • Weinberg, Gerhard L. A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II, (1994) the best overall view of the war.
  • Wheeler, Keith. The Fall of Japan (1983)

References

External Links

World War II Wars

World War&nbsp;II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war. It is generally considered to have lasted from 1939 to 1945, although some conflicts in Asia that are commonly viewed as becoming part of the world war had begun earlier than 1939. It involved the vast majority of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, with more than 100 million people, from more than 30 different countries. In a state of “total war”, the major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the first use of nuclear weapons in combat, it resulted in an estimated 50 million to 85 million fatalities. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history.<ref name=“Sommerville 2008 5”>

.</ref>

The Empire of Japan aimed to dominate East Asia and was already at war with the Republic of China in 1937,<ref name=“Bar&Shyu 2001 6”>

.</ref> but the world war is generally said to have begun on 1 September 1939 with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom. From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany formed the Axis alliance with Italy, conquering or subduing much of continental Europe. Following the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories between themselves of their European neighbours, including Poland, Finland and the Baltic states. The United Kingdom and the other members<!– With the State of Westminster (1931), the UK recognised that the Dominions (at the time, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa) were _equal_ and _independent_ members of the “British Commonwealth” –> of the British Commonwealth<!–“British Commonwealth” was the official name between 1926 and 1949. –> were the only major Allied forces continuing the fight against the Axis, with battles taking place in North and East Africa as well as the long-running Battle of the Atlantic. In June 1941, the European Axis launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, giving a start to the largest land theatre of war in history, which tied down the major part of the Axis' military forces for the rest of the war. In December 1941, Japan joined the Axis, attacked the United States and European territories in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.

The Axis advance was stopped in 1942. Japan lost a critical battle at Midway, near Hawaii, and never regained its earlier momentum. Germany was defeated in North Africa and, decisively, at Stalingrad in Russia. In 1943, with a series of German defeats in Eastern Europe, the Allied invasion of Italy which brought about that nation's surrender, and American victories in the Pacific, the Axis lost the initiative and undertook strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese began suffering major reverses in mainland Asia in Burma and South Central China whilst the United States defeated the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands.

The war in Europe ended with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet and Polish troops and the subsequent German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945. Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 August and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago (known as Operation Downfall) imminent, and the Soviet Union having declared war on Japan by invading Manchuria, Japan surrendered on 15 August 1945, ending the war in Asia and cementing the total victory of the Allies over the Axis.

World War&nbsp;II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world. The United Nations (UN) was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The great powers that were the victors of the war—the United States, the Soviet Union, China, the United Kingdom, and France—became the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.<ref name=“The UN Security Council”>

</ref> The Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers started to decline, while the decolonisation of Asia and Africa began. Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery. Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to stabilise postwar relations and cooperate more effectively in the Cold War.<ref>

</ref>

Chronology

The start of the war is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland; Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later. Other dates for the beginning of war include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937.<ref name=“För&Ges 2005 64”>

.</ref>

Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and the two wars merged in 1941. This article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War&nbsp;II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935.<ref>

;

; Yisreelit, Hevrah Mizrahit (1965). Asian and African Studies, p. 191.<p>For 1941 see

; Kellogg, William O (2003). American History the Easy Way. Barron's Educational Series. p. 236 ISBN 0-7641-1973-7.<p>There is also the viewpoint that both World War&nbsp;I and World War&nbsp;II are part of the same “European Civil War” or “Second Thirty Years War”:

;

.</ref> The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of the Second World War as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the Mongolia, Soviet Union from May to September 1939.<ref name=“Beevor 2012 10”>

.</ref>

The exact date of the war's end is also not universally agreed upon. It has been suggested that the war ended at the armistice of 14 August 1945 (V-J Day), rather than the formal surrender of Japan (2 September 1945); in some European histories, it ended on V-E Day (8 May 1945). However, the Treaty of Peace with Japan was not signed until 1951,<ref name=“Masaya 1990 4”>

.</ref> and that with Germany not until 1990.<ref>

</ref>

Background

File:Italian Fascist flag 1930s-1940s.svg

. The symbol in the centre is a fasces; an ancient Roman symbol of imperium and authority]]

World War I had radically altered the political map, with the defeat of the Central Powers—including Austria-Hungary, Germany and the Ottoman Empire—and the 1917 Bolshevik seizure of power in Russia. Meanwhile, existing victorious Allies such as France, Belgium, Italy, Greece and Romania gained territories, while new states were created out of the collapse of Austria-Hungary and the Russian and Ottoman Empires.

Despite the pacifist movement in the aftermath of the war,<ref name=“Ingram 2006 76_78”>

</ref> the losses still caused irredentist and revanchist nationalism to become important in a number of European states. Irredentism and revanchism were strong in Germany because of the significant territorial, colonial, and financial losses incurred by the Treaty of Versailles. Under the treaty, Germany lost around 13 percent of its home territory and all of its overseas colonies, while German annexation of other states was prohibited, reparations were imposed, and limits were placed on the size and capability of the country's armed forces.<ref>

.</ref> Meanwhile, the Russian Civil War had led to the creation of the Soviet Union.<ref>

.</ref>

The German Empire was dissolved in the German Revolution of 1918–1919, and a democratic government, later known as the Weimar Republic, was created. The interwar period saw strife between supporters of the new republic and hardline opponents on both the right and left. Although Italy as an Entente ally made some territorial gains, Italian nationalists were angered that the promises made by Britain and France to secure Italian entrance into the war were not fulfilled with the peace settlement. From 1922 to 1925, the Fascist movement led by Benito Mussolini seized power in Italy with a nationalist, totalitarian, and class collaborationist agenda that abolished representative democracy, repressed socialist, left-wing and liberal forces, and pursued an aggressive foreign policy aimed at forcefully forging Italy as a world power, promising the creation of a “New Roman Empire”.<ref>

.</ref>

In Germany, the Weimar Republic's legitimacy was challenged by right-wing elements such the Freikorps and the Nazi party, resulting in events such as the Kapp Putsch and the Beer Hall Putsch. With the onset of the Great Depression in 1929, domestic support for Nazism and its leader Adolf Hitler rose and, in 1933, he was appointed Chancellor of Germany. In the aftermath of the Reichstag fire, Hitler created a totalitarian single-party state led by the Nazis.<ref name=“Bullock 1990 265”>

.</ref>

The Kuomintang (KMT) party in China launched a unification campaign against regional warlords and nominally unified China in the mid-1920s, but was soon embroiled in a civil war against its former Chinese communist allies.<ref>

.</ref> In 1931, an increasingly militaristic Japanese Empire, which had long sought influence in China<ref>

.</ref> as the first step of what its government saw as the country's right to rule Asia, used the Mukden Incident as a pretext to launch an invasion of Manchuria and establish the puppet state of Manchukuo.<ref name=Mukden>

.</ref>

File:Parteiadler der Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (1933–1945) (vector version).svg

, with a swastika in a wreath of oak leafs]]

Too weak to resist Japan, China appealed to the League of Nations for help. Japan withdrew from the League of Nations after being condemned for its incursion into Manchuria. The two nations then fought several battles, in Shanghai, Rehe and Hebei, until the Tanggu Truce was signed in 1933. Thereafter, Chinese volunteer forces continued the resistance to Japanese aggression in Manchuria, and Chahar and Suiyuan.<ref name=“Coogan 1993”>

: “Although some Chinese troops in the Northeast managed to retreat south, others were trapped by the advancing Japanese Army and were faced with the choice of resistance in defiance of orders, or surrender. A few commanders submitted, receiving high office in the puppet government, but others took up arms against the invader. The forces they commanded were the first of the volunteer armies.”</ref>

Adolf Hitler, after an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the German government in 1923, became the Chancellor of Germany in 1933, through a successful victory in the democratic German Federal election of 1932; running on an open platform of right-wing Nazi ideology. Once in power, he abolished the democratic process, espousing a radical, racially motivated revision of the world order, and soon began a massive rearmament campaign.<ref>

.</ref> It was at this time that multiple political scientists began to predict that a second Great War might take place.<ref>

.</ref> Meanwhile, France, to secure its alliance, allowed Italy a free hand in Ethiopia, which Italy desired as a colonial possession. The situation was aggravated in early 1935 when the Territory of the Saar Basin was legally reunited with Germany and Hitler repudiated the Treaty of Versailles, accelerated his rearmament programme and introduced conscription.<ref>

.</ref>

became Germany's head of state, with the title of Führer ind Reichskanzler]]

Hoping to contain Germany, the United Kingdom, France and Italy formed the Stresa Front; however, in June 1935, the United Kingdom made an independent naval agreement with Germany, easing prior restrictions. The Soviet Union, concerned due to Germany's goals of capturing vast areas of eastern Europe, wrote a treaty of mutual assistance with France. Before taking effect though, the Franco-Soviet pact was required to go through the bureaucracy of the League of Nations, which rendered it essentially toothless.<ref>

;

.</ref> The United States, concerned with events in Europe and Asia, passed the Neutrality Act in August.<ref name=“Schmitz 2000 124”>

.</ref> In October, Italy invaded Ethiopia, and Germany was the only major European nation to support the invasion. Italy subsequently dropped its objections to Germany's goal of absorbing Austria.<ref>

.</ref>

Hitler defied the Versailles and Locarno treaties by remilitarising the Rhineland in March 1936. He received little response from other European powers.<ref>

.</ref> When the Spanish Civil War broke out in July, Hitler and Mussolini supported the fascist and authoritarian Nationalist forces in their civil war against the Soviet-supported Spanish Republic. Both sides used the conflict to test new weapons and methods of warfare,<ref>

.</ref> with the Nationalists winning the war in early 1939. In October 1936, Germany and Italy formed the Rome-Berlin Axis. A month later, Germany and Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact, which Italy would join in the following year. In China, after the Xi'an Incident the Kuomintang and communist forces agreed on a ceasefire in order to present a united front to oppose Japan.<ref>

.</ref>

Pre-war events

Italian invasion of Ethiopia (1935)

]]

The Second Italo–Abyssinian War was a brief colonial war that began in October 1935 and ended in May 1936. The war was fought between the armed forces of the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) and the armed forces of the Ethiopian Empire (also known as Abyssinia). The war resulted in the military occupation of Ethiopia and its annexation into the newly created colony of Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana, or AOI); in addition, it exposed the weakness of the League of Nations as a force to preserve peace. Both Italy and Ethiopia were member nations, but the League did nothing when the former clearly violated the League's own Article X.<ref name=“Barker 1971 131_132”>

.</ref>

Spanish Civil War (1936–39)

in 1937, sparked Europe-wide fears that the next war would be based on bombing of cities, with very high civilian casualties]]

During the Spanish Civil War, Hitler and Mussolini lent military support to the Nationalist rebels, led by General Francisco Franco. The Soviet Union supported the existing government, the Spanish Republic. Over 30,000 foreign volunteers, known as the International Brigades, also fought against the Nationalists. Both Germany and the USSR used this proxy war as an opportunity to test in combat their most advanced weapons and tactics. The bombing of Guernica by the German Condor Legion in April 1937 heightened widespread concerns that the next major war would include extensive terror bombing attacks on civilians.<ref name=“Beevor 2006 258_260”>

.<br>Tony Judt said that the “communist strategy in Spain turns out to have been a dry run for the seizure of power in Eastern Europe after 1945.” See

.</ref><ref name=“Budiansky 2004 209_211”>

.</ref> The Nationalists won the civil war in April 1939; Franco, now dictator, bargained with both sides during the Second World War, but never concluded any major agreements. He did send volunteers to fight on the eastern front under German command but Spain remained neutral and did not allow either side to use its territory.<ref>

.</ref>

Japanese invasion of China (1937)

soldiers, during the Battle of Shanghai, 1937]]

In July 1937, Japan captured the former Chinese imperial capital of Beijing after instigating the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, which culminated in the Japanese campaign to invade all of China.<ref name=“Eastman 1986 547_551”>

.</ref> The Soviets quickly signed a non-aggression pact with China to lend materiel support, effectively ending China's prior co-operation with Germany. Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek deployed his best army to defend Shanghai, but, after three months of fighting, Shanghai fell. The Japanese continued to push the Chinese forces back, capturing the capital Nanking in December 1937 and committed the Nanking Massacre.

In March 1938, Nationalist Chinese force got their first major victory at Taierzhuang but then city Xuzhou was taken by Japanese in May.<ref name=“Hsu & Chang 1971 221”>

.</ref> In June 1938, Chinese forces stalled the Japanese advance by flooding the Yellow River; this manoeuvre bought time for the Chinese to prepare their defences at Wuhan, but the city was taken by October.<ref name=“Eastman 1986 566”>

.</ref> Japanese military victories did not bring about the collapse of Chinese resistance that Japan had hoped to achieve; instead the Chinese government relocated inland to Chongqing and continued the war.<ref name=“Taylor 2009 150_152”>

.</ref><ref name=“Sella 1983 651_687”>

.</ref>

Japanese invasion of the Soviet Union and Mongolia (1938)

These clashes convinced some factions in the Japanese government that they should focus on conciliating the Soviet government to avoid interference in the war against China and instead turn their military attention southward, towards the US and European holdings in the Pacific, and also prevented the sacking of experienced Soviet military leaders such as Georgy Zhukov, who would later play a vital role in the defence of Moscow.<ref name=“Chaney 1996 76”>

.</ref>

European occupations and agreements

, Daladier, Hitler, Mussolini, and Ciano pictured just before signing the Munich Agreement]]

In Europe, Germany and Italy were becoming bolder. In March 1938, Germany annexed Austria, again provoking little response from other European powers.<ref name=“Col & Ped 2000 144”>

.</ref> Encouraged, Hitler began pressing German claims on the Sudetenland, an area of Czechoslovakia with a predominantly ethnic German population; and soon Britain and France followed the counsel of prime minister Neville Chamberlain and conceded this territory to Germany in the Munich Agreement, which was made against the wishes of the Czechoslovak government, in exchange for a promise of no further territorial demands.<ref>

.</ref> Soon afterwards, Germany and Italy forced Czechoslovakia to cede additional territory to Hungary and Poland.<ref>

.</ref>

Although all of Germany's stated demands had been satisfied by the agreement, privately Hitler was furious that British interference had prevented him from seizing all of Czechoslovakia in one operation. In subsequent speeches Hitler attacked British and Jewish “war-mongers” and in January 1939 secretly ordered a major build-up of the German navy to challenge British naval supremacy. In March 1939, Germany invaded the remainder of Czechoslovakia and subsequently split it into the German Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and a pro-German client state, the Slovak Republic.<ref>

.</ref> Hitler also delivered an ultimatum to Lithuania, forcing the concession of the Klaipėda Region.

signing the Nazi–Soviet non-aggression pact. Standing behind him are Molotov and the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin]]

Alarmed, and with Hitler making further demands on the Free City of Danzig, France and Britain guaranteed their support for Polish independence; when Italy conquered Albania in April 1939, the same guarantee was extended to Romania and Greece.<ref name=“Lowe & Marz 2002 330”>

.</ref> Shortly after the Franco-British pledge to Poland, Germany and Italy formalised their own alliance with the Pact of Steel.<ref>

.</ref> Hitler accused Britain and Poland of trying to “encircle” Germany and renounced the Anglo-German Naval Agreement and the German–Polish Non-Aggression Pact.

In August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact,<ref name=“Shore 2003 108”>

.</ref> a non-aggression treaty with a secret protocol. The parties gave each other rights to “spheres of influence” (western Poland and Lithuania for Germany; eastern Poland, Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Bessarabia for the USSR). It also raised the question of continuing Polish independence.<ref>

.</ref> The agreement was crucial to Hitler because it assured that Germany would not have to face the prospect of a two-front war, as it had in World War I, after it defeated Poland.

The situation reached a general crisis in late August as German troops continued to mobilise against the Polish border. In a private meeting with the Italian foreign minister, Count Ciano, Hitler asserted that Poland was a “doubtful neutral” that needed to either yield to his demands or be “liquidated” to prevent it from drawing off German troops in the future “unavoidable” war with the Western democracies. He did not believe Britain or France would intervene in the conflict.<ref>Minutes of the conference between the Fuehrer and the Italian Minister for Foreign Affairs, Count Ciano, in the presence of the Reich Foreign Minister of Obersalzberg on 12 August 1939 in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression Volume IV Document No. 1871-PS</ref> On 23 August Hitler ordered the attack to proceed on 26 August, but upon hearing that Britain had concluded a formal mutual assistance pact with Poland and that Italy would maintain neutrality, he decided to delay it.<ref>TheGerman Campaign In Poland (1939)</ref> In response to British pleas for direct negotiations, Germany demanded on 29 August that a Polish plenipotentiary immediately travel to Berlin to negotiate the handover of Danzig and the Polish Corridor to Germany as well as to agree to safeguard the German minority in Poland. The Poles refused to comply with this request and on the evening of 31 August Germany declared that it considered its proposals rejected.<ref name=“ibiblio 1939”>

</ref>

Course of the war

War breaks out in Europe (1939–40)

tearing down the border crossing between Poland and the Free City of Danzig, 1 September 1939]]

On 1 September 1939, Germany and Slovakia (which was a German client state at the time) invaded Poland on the false pretext that Poland had launched attacks on German territory.<ref name=“Evans 2008 1_2”>

.</ref> On 3 September France and Britain, followed by the fully independent Dominions<!–With the State of Westminster (1931), the UK recognised that the Dominions (at the time, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa) were _equal_ and _independent_ members of the “British Commonwealth”.–><ref name=“Jackson 2006 58”>

.</ref> of the British Commonwealth,<!–“British Commonwealth” was the official name between 1926 and 1949.–><ref name=“Weinberg 2005 64_65”>

.</ref> – Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa – declared war on Germany, but provided little support to Poland other than a small French attack into the Saarland.<ref name=“Keegan 1997 35”>

.<br>

, observes that, while it is true that Poland was far away, making it difficult for the French and British to provide support, “[f]ew Western historians of World War II&nbsp;… know that the British had committed to bomb Germany if it attacked Poland, but did not do so except for one raid on the base of Wilhelmshafen. The French, who committed to attack Germany in the west, had no intention of doing so.”</ref> Britain and France also began a naval blockade of Germany on 3 September which aimed to damage the country's economy and war effort.<ref>

;

;

.</ref> Germany responded by ordering U-boat warfare against Allied merchant and war ships, which was to later escalate in the Battle of the Atlantic.

tanks near the Brda River, during the Invasion of Poland on 3 September 1939. The new mechanized German Blitzkrieg tactics allowed for swift military maneuvering, and became synonymous with indiscriminate targeting of civilian populations]]

On 17 September 1939, after signing a cease-fire with Japan, the Soviets also invaded Poland.<ref name=“Zaloga 2002 80,83”>

.</ref> The Polish army was defeated and Warsaw surrendered to the Germans on 27 September, with final pockets of resistance surrendering on 6 October. Poland's territory was divided between Germany and the Soviet Union, with Lithuania and Slovakia also receiving small shares. The Poles did not surrender; they established a Polish Underground State and an underground Home Army, and continued to fight alongside the Allies on all fronts in Europe and North Africa.<ref name=“Hempel 2005 24”>

.</ref>

About 100,000 Polish military personnel were evacuated to Romania and the Baltic countries; many of these soldiers later fought against the Germans in other theatres of the war.<ref name=“Zaloga 2002 88_89”>

.</ref> Poland's Enigma codebreakers were also evacuated to France.<ref name=“Budiansky 2001 120_121”>

.</ref> During this time, Japan launched its first attack against Changsha, a strategically important Chinese city, but was repulsed by late September.<ref>

.</ref>

On 6 October Hitler made a public peace overture to Britain and France, but said that the future of Poland was to be determined exclusively by Germany and the Soviet Union. Chamberlain rejected this on 12 October, saying “Past experience has shown that no reliance can be placed upon the promises of the present German Government.”<ref name=“ibiblio 1939”/> After this rejection Hitler ordered an immediate offensive against France, but his generals persuaded him to wait until May of next year.

In December 1939 Britain won a naval victory over Germany in the south Atlantic during the Battle of the River Plate.

Following the invasion of Poland and a German-Soviet treaty governing Lithuania, the Soviet Union forced the Baltic countries to allow it to station Soviet troops in their countries under pacts of "mutual assistance."<ref name=“Smith 2002 24”>

</ref><ref name=“blinsky9”/><ref name=“murray55”>

.</ref> Finland rejected territorial demands and was invaded by the Soviet Union in November 1939.<ref name=“Spring 1986”>

.</ref> The resulting Winter War ended in March 1940 with Finnish concessions.<ref name=“Hanhimäki 1997 12”>

.</ref> France and the United Kingdom, treating the Soviet attack on Finland as tantamount to entering the war on the side of the Germans, responded to the Soviet invasion by supporting the USSR's expulsion from the League of Nations.<ref name=“murray55”/>

Western Europe (1940–41)

]]

In April 1940, Germany invaded Denmark and Norway to protect shipments of iron ore from Sweden, which the Allies were attempting to cut off by unilaterally mining neutral Norwegian waters.<ref>

.</ref> Denmark capitulated after a few hours, and despite Allied support, Norway was conquered within two months.<ref name=“Commager 2004 9”>

.</ref> British discontent over the Norwegian campaign led to the replacement of the British Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain, with Winston Churchill on 10 May 1940.<ref name=“Reynolds 2006 76”>

.</ref>

Germany launched an offensive against France and, for reasons of military strategy, also attacked the neutral nations of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg on 10 May 1940.<ref name=“Evans 2008 122_123”>

.</ref> That same day Britain occupied the Danish possessions of Iceland, Greenland and the Faroes to preempt a possible German invasion of the islands.<ref>

.<br>The Americans later relieved the British, with marines arriving in Reykjavik on 7 July 1941 (

).</ref> The Netherlands and Belgium were overrun using blitzkrieg tactics in a few days and weeks, respectively.<ref name=“shirer721-3”>

.</ref> The French-fortified Maginot Line and the main body the Allied forces which had moved into Belgium were circumvented by a flanking movement through the thickly wooded Ardennes region,<ref name=“Keegan 1997 59_60”>

.</ref> mistakenly perceived by Allied planners as an impenetrable natural barrier against armoured vehicles.<ref name=“Regan 2004 152”>

.</ref> As a result, the bulk of the Allied armies found themselves trapped in an encirclement and were beaten.

Allied troops were forced to evacuate the continent at Dunkirk, abandoning their heavy equipment by early June.<ref name=“Keegan 1997 66_67”>

.</ref> On 10 June, Italy invaded France, declaring war on both France and Britain;<ref name=“Ove&Whe 1999 207”>

.</ref> Paris fell on 14 June and eight days later France surrendered and was soon divided into German and Italian occupation zones,<ref name=“Umbreit 1991 311”>

.</ref> and an unoccupied rump state under the Vichy Regime, which, though officially neutral, was generally aligned with Germany. France kept its fleet but the British feared the Germans would seize it, so on 3 July, the British attacked it.<ref name=“Brown 2004 xxx”>

.</ref>

In June 1940, the Soviet Union forcibly annexed Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania,<ref name=“blinsky9”>

.</ref> and then annexed the disputed Romanian region of Bessarabia. Meanwhile, Nazi-Soviet political rapprochement and economic co-operation<ref>

.</ref><ref name=“Snyder 2010 118ff”>

.</ref> gradually stalled,<ref name=“Koch 1983”>

.</ref><ref name=“stalinswars56”>

.</ref> and both states began preparations for war.<ref name=“stalinswars59”>

.</ref>

On 19 July, Hitler again publicly offered to end the war, saying he had no desire to destroy the British Empire. Britain rejected this, with Lord Halifax responding “there was in his speech no suggestion that peace must be based on justice, no word of recognition that the other nations of Europe had any right to self‑determination&nbsp;…”<ref name=“ibiblio 1940”>

</ref>

after "The Blitz" on 29 December 1940. Over a period of 267 days the city was attacked 71 times by the German Luftwaffe]]

Following this, Germany began an air superiority campaign over Britain (the Battle of Britain) to prepare for an invasion.<ref name=“autogenerated38”>

.</ref> The campaign failed, and the invasion plans were cancelled by September.<ref name=“autogenerated38”/> Frustrated, and in part in response to repeated British air raids against Berlin, Germany began a strategic bombing offensive against British cities known as the Blitz.<ref>The Battle of Britain: The Last Phase THE DEFENSE OF THE UNITED KINGDOM 1957</ref> However, the air attacks largely failed to either disrupt the British war effort or convince them to sue for peace.

Using newly captured French ports, the German Navy enjoyed success against an over-extended Royal Navy, using U-boats against British shipping in the Atlantic.<ref>

.<br>Aircraft played a highly important role in defeating the German U-boats (

).</ref> <!– REFERENCES NEEDED FOR THIS –> The British scored a significant victory on 27 May 1941 by sinking the German battleship ''Bismarck''.<ref>

;

.</ref> Perhaps most importantly, during the Battle of Britain the Royal Air Force had successfully resisted the Luftwaffe's assault, and the German bombing campaign largely ended in May 1941.<ref>

.</ref>

, Heinkel He 111 bombers, during the Battle of Britain]]

Throughout this period, the neutral United States took measures to assist China and the Western Allies. In November 1939, the American Neutrality Act was amended to allow "cash and carry" purchases by the Allies.<ref name=“Ove&Whe 1999 328_330”>

.</ref> In 1940, following the German capture of Paris, the size of the United States Navy was significantly increased. In September, the United States further agreed to a trade of American destroyers for British bases.<ref name=“Maingot 1994 52”>

.</ref> Still, a large majority of the American public continued to oppose any direct military intervention into the conflict well into 1941.<ref name=“Cantril 1940 390”>

.</ref><!– REFERENCE PREDATES THIS CLAIM –>

Although Roosevelt had promised to keep the United States out of the war, he nevertheless took concrete steps to prepare for that eventuality. In December 1940 he accused Hitler of planning world conquest and ruled out negotiations as useless, calling for the US to become an “arsenal for democracy” and promoted the passage of Lend-Lease aid to support the British war effort.<ref name=“ibiblio 1940”/> In January 1941 secret high level staff talks with the British began for the purposes of determining how to defeat Germany should the US enter the war. They decided on a number of offensive policies, including an air offensive, the “early elimination” of Italy, raids, support of resistance groups, and the capture of positions to launch an offensive against Germany.<ref>Coordination With Britain Chief of Staff: Prewar Plans and Operations</ref>

At the end of September 1940, the Tripartite Pact united Japan, Italy and Germany to formalise the Axis Powers. The Tripartite Pact stipulated that any country, with the exception of the Soviet Union, not in the war which attacked any Axis Power would be forced to go to war against all three.<ref name=“Bil&Ell 2007 179”>

.</ref> The Axis expanded in November 1940 when Hungary, Slovakia and Romania joined the Tripartite Pact.<ref name=“Tripartite Pact”>

.</ref> Romania would make a major contribution (as did Hungary) to the Axis war against the USSR, partially to recapture territory ceded to the USSR, partially to pursue its leader Ion Antonescu's desire to combat communism.<ref>

.</ref>

Mediterranean (1940–41)

troops of the British Commonwealth Forces man a front-line trench, during the Siege of Tobruk; North African Campaign, August 1941]]

Italy began operations in the Mediterranean, initiating a siege of Malta in June, conquering British Somaliland in August, and making an incursion into British-held Egypt in September 1940. In October 1940, Italy started the Greco-Italian War due to Mussolini's jealousy of Hitler's success but within days was repulsed and pushed back into Albania, where a stalemate soon occurred.<ref name=“Clogg 2002 118”>

.</ref> Britain responded to Greek requests for assistance by sending troops to Crete and providing air support to Greece. Hitler decided to take action against Greece when the weather improved to assist the Italians and prevent the British from gaining a foothold in the Balkans, to strike against the British naval dominance of the Mediterranean, and to secure his hold on Romanian oil.<ref>

;

.</ref>

In December 1940, British Commonwealth forces began counter-offensives against Italian forces in Egypt and Italian East Africa.<ref name=“Jowett 2001 9_10”>

.</ref> The offensive in North Africa was highly successful and by early February 1941 Italy had lost control of eastern Libya and large numbers of Italian troops had been taken prisoner. The Italian Navy also suffered significant defeats, with the Royal Navy putting three Italian battleships out of commission by a carrier attack at Taranto, and neutralising several more warships at the Battle of Cape Matapan.<ref name=“Jackson 2006 106”>

.</ref>

The Germans soon intervened to assist Italy. Hitler sent German forces to Libya in February, and by the end of March they had launched an offensive which drove back the Commonwealth forces who had been weakened to support Greece.<ref name=“Laurier 2001 7_8”>

.</ref> In under a month, Commonwealth forces were pushed back into Egypt with the exception of the besieged port of Tobruk.<ref>

.</ref> The Commonwealth attempted to dislodge Axis forces in May and again in June, but failed on both occasions.<ref name=“Macksey 1997 61_63”>

.</ref>

By late March 1941, following Bulgaria's signing of the Tripartite Pact, the Germans were in position to intervene in Greece. Plans were changed, however, due to developments in neighbouring Yugoslavia. The Yugoslav government had signed the Tripartite Pact on 25 March, only to be overthrown two days later by a British-encouraged coup. Hitler viewed the new regime as hostile and immediately decided to eliminate it. On 6 April Germany simultaneously invaded both Yugoslavia and Greece, making rapid progress and forcing both nations to surrender within the month. The British were driven from the Balkans after Germany conquered the Greek island of Crete by the end of May.<ref name=“Weinberg 2005 229”>

.</ref> <!– REFERENCE SEEMS VERY NARROW FOR RANGE OF EVENTS COVERED –> Although the Axis victory was swift, bitter partisan warfare subsequently broke out against the Axis occupation of Yugoslavia, which continued until the end of the war.

The Allies did have some successes during this time. In the Middle East, Commonwealth forces first quashed an uprising in Iraq which had been supported by German aircraft from bases within Vichy-controlled Syria,<ref name=“Watson 2003 80”>

.</ref> then, with the assistance of the Free French, invaded Syria and Lebanon to prevent further such occurrences.<ref name=“Jackson 2006 154”>

.</ref>

Axis attack on the USSR (1941)

leader Heinrich Himmler viewing Soviet POWs, 1941. By the end of the war, some 3.3 to 3.5 million Russian troops will die in German prison camps; or about 60% of all captured Red Army soldiers]]

With the situation in Europe and Asia relatively stable, Germany, Japan, and the Soviet Union made preparations. With the Soviets wary of mounting tensions with Germany and the Japanese planning to take advantage of the European War by seizing resource-rich European possessions in Southeast Asia, the two powers signed the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact in April 1941.<ref name=“Garver 1988 114”>

.</ref> By contrast, the Germans were steadily making preparations for an attack on the Soviet Union, amassing forces on the Soviet border.<ref name=“Weinberg 2005 195”>

</ref>

Hitler believed that Britain's refusal to end the war was based on the hope that the United States and the Soviet Union would enter the war against Germany sooner or later.<ref>

.</ref> He accordingly decided to try to strengthen Germany's relations with the Soviets, or failing that, to attack and eliminate them as a factor. In November 1940 negotiations took place to determine if the Soviet Union would join the Tripartite Pact. The Soviets showed some interest, but asked for concessions from Finland, Bulgaria, Turkey, and Japan that Germany considered unacceptable. On 18 December 1940 Hitler issued the directive to prepare for an invasion of the Soviet Union.

On 22 June 1941, Germany, Italy and Romania invaded the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa, with Germany accusing the Soviets of plotting against them. They were joined shortly by Finland and Hungary.<ref name=“Events1941”>

</ref> The primary targets of this surprise offensive<ref name=“Sella 1978”>

.</ref> were the Baltic region, Moscow and Ukraine, with the ultimate goal of ending the 1941 campaign near the Arkhangelsk-Astrakhan line, from the Caspian to the White Seas. Hitler's objectives were to eliminate the Soviet Union as a military power, exterminate Communism, generate Lebensraum (“living space”)<ref name=“Kershaw 2007 66_69”>

.</ref> by dispossessing the native population<ref name=“Steinberg 1995”>

.</ref> and guarantee access to the strategic resources needed to defeat Germany's remaining rivals.<ref name=“Hauner 1978”>

.</ref>

Although the Red Army was preparing for strategic counter-offensives before the war,<ref name=“CRoberts 1995”>

.</ref> Barbarossa forced the Soviet supreme command to adopt a strategic defence. During the summer, the Axis made significant gains into Soviet territory, inflicting immense losses in both personnel and materiel. By the middle of August, however, the German Army High Command decided to suspend the offensive of a considerably depleted Army Group Centre, and to divert the 2nd Panzer Group to reinforce troops advancing towards central Ukraine and Leningrad.<ref name=“Wilt 1981”>

.</ref> The Kiev offensive was overwhelmingly successful, resulting in encirclement and elimination of four Soviet armies, and made further advance into Crimea and industrially developed Eastern Ukraine (the First Battle of Kharkov) possible.<ref name=“Erickson 2003 114_137”>

.</ref>

, Einsatzgruppen killing unit in Ukraine. Photo was mailed from the Eastern Front to Germany, and intercepted at a Warsaw post office by members of the Polish Resistance collecting documentation on Nazi war crimes, 1942]]

The diversion of three quarters of the Axis troops and the majority of their air forces from France and the central Mediterranean to the Eastern Front<ref name=“D. Glantz. Soviet-German War”>

.</ref> prompted Britain to reconsider its grand strategy.<ref name=“Farrell 1993”>

.</ref> In July, the UK and the Soviet Union formed a military alliance against Germany<ref name=“Keeble 1990 29”>

.</ref> The British and Soviets invaded Iran to secure the Persian Corridor and Iran's oil fields.<ref>

</ref> In August, the United Kingdom and the United States jointly issued the Atlantic Charter.<ref name=“Beevor 2012 220”>

.</ref>

By October, when Axis operational objectives in Ukraine and the Baltic region were achieved, with only the sieges of Leningrad<ref name=“Kleinfeld 1983”>

.</ref> and Sevastopol continuing,<ref name=“Jukes 2001 113”>

.</ref> a major offensive against Moscow had been renewed. After two months of fierce battles, the German army almost reached the outer suburbs of Moscow, where the exhausted troops<ref>

: “By 1 November [the Wehrmacht] had lost fully 20% of its committed strength (686,000 men), up to 2/3 of its ½-million motor vehicles, and 65 percent of its tanks. The German Army High Command (OKH) rated its 136 divisions as equivalent to 83 full-strength divisions.”</ref> were forced to suspend their offensive.<ref name=“Reinhardt 1992 227”>

.</ref> Large territorial gains were made by Axis forces, but their campaign had failed to achieve its main objectives: two key cities remained in Soviet hands, the Soviet capability to resist was not broken, and the Soviet Union retained a considerable part of its military potential. The blitzkrieg phase of the war in Europe had ended.<ref name=“Milward 1964”>

.</ref>

By early December, freshly mobilised reserves<ref name=“Rotundo 1986”>

.</ref> allowed the Soviets to achieve numerical parity with Axis troops.<ref>

.</ref><!–Note: I think the source indicates that the Red Army had more numbers than the Wehrmacht by December–> This, as well as intelligence data that established a minimal number of Soviet troops in the East sufficient to prevent any attack by the Japanese Kwantung Army,<ref name=“Garthoff 1969”>

.</ref> allowed the Soviets to begin a massive counter-offensive that started on 5 December all along the front and pushed German troops

west.<ref>

.<br>

, notes that “Zhukov had pushed the Germans back to the point from which they had launched Operation Typhoon two months before.&nbsp;… Only Stalin's decision to attack all along the front instead of pushing home the advantage by concentrating his forces in an all-out assault against the retreating Germany Army Group Centre prevented the disaster from being even worse.”</ref>

War breaks out in the Pacific (1941)

, “Zero” fighters on the Imperial Japanese Navy aircraft carrier Shōkaku, just before the attack on Pearl Harbor]]

In 1939 the United States had renounced its trade treaty with Japan and beginning with an aviation gasoline ban in July 1940 Japan had become subject to increasing economic pressure.<ref name=“ibiblio 1940”/> Despite several offensives by both sides, the war between China and Japan was stalemated by 1940. In order to increase pressure on China by blocking supply routes, and to better position Japanese forces in the event of a war with the Western powers, Japan had occupied northern Indochina<ref name=“Ove&Whe 1999 289”>

.</ref> Afterwards, the United States embargoed iron, steel and mechanical parts against Japan.<ref name=“Morison 2002 60”>

.</ref> Other sanctions soon followed.

In August of that year, Chinese communists launched an offensive in Central China; in retaliation, Japan instituted harsh measures (the Three Alls Policy) in occupied areas to reduce human and material resources for the communists.<ref name=“Joes 2004 224”>

.</ref> Continued antipathy between Chinese communist and nationalist forces culminated in armed clashes in January 1941, effectively ending their co-operation.<ref name=“Fai&Gol 1994 320”>

.</ref> In March, the Japanese 11th army attacked the headquarters of the Chinese 19th army but was repulsed during Battle of Shanggao.<ref>

.</ref> In September, Japan attempted to take the city of Changsha again and clashed with Chinese nationalist forces.<ref>

.</ref>

German successes in Europe encouraged Japan to increase pressure on European governments in south-east Asia. The Dutch government agreed to provide Japan some oil supplies from the Dutch East Indies, but negotiations for additional access to their resources ended in failure in June 1941.<ref>Japanese Policy and Strategy, 1931 – July 1941 Strategy and Command: The First Two Years</ref> In July 1941 Japan sent troops to southern Indochina, thus threatening British and Dutch possessions in the Far East. The United States, United Kingdom and other Western governments reacted to this move with a freeze on Japanese assets and a total oil embargo.<ref name=“Anderson 1975 201”>

.</ref><ref name=“Eva&Pea 2012 456”>

.</ref>

Since early 1941 the United States and Japan had been engaged in negotiations in an attempt to improve their strained relations and end the war in China. During these negotiations Japan advanced a number of proposals which were dismissed by the Americans as inadequate.<ref name=“ibiblio1”>The Decision for War Strategy and Command: The First Two Years</ref> At the same time the US, Britain, and the Netherlands engaged in secret discussions for the joint defence of their territories in the event of a Japanese attack against any of them.<ref name=“ibiblio1941”>The Showdown With Japan August–December 1941 Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare, 1941–1942</ref> Roosevelt reinforced the Philippines (an American possession since 1898) and warned Japan that the US would react to Japanese attacks against any “neighboring countries”.<ref name=“ibiblio1941”/>

during the Japanese surprise air attack on the American pacific fleet, 7 December 1941. The battleship went down after a Japanese bomb scored a direct hit on one of the ship's ammunition magazines, creating a explosion that killed 1,177 crewmen]]

Frustrated at the lack of progress and feeling the pinch of the American-British-Dutch sanctions, Japan prepared for war. On 20 November it presented an interim proposal as its final offer. It called for the end of American aid to China and the supply of oil and other resources to Japan. In exchange they promised not to launch any attacks in Southeast Asia and to withdraw their forces from their threatening positions in southern Indochina.<ref name=“ibiblio1”/> The American counter-proposal of 26 November required that Japan evacuate all of China without conditions and conclude non-aggression pacts with all Pacific powers.<ref>THE UNITED STATES REPLIES Investigation of the Pearl Harbor attack</ref> That meant Japan was essentially forced to choose between abandoning its ambitions in China, or seizing the natural resources it needed in the Dutch East Indies by force;<ref>

: “The United States cut off oil exports to Japan in the summer of 1941, forcing Japanese leaders to choose between going to war to seize the oil fields of the Netherlands East Indies or giving in to U.S. pressure.”<br>

, listing various military and diplomatic developments, observes that “the threat to Japan was not purely economic.”</ref> the Japanese military did not consider the former an option, and many officers considered the oil embargo an unspoken declaration of war.<ref name=“Lightbody 2004 125”>

.</ref>

Japan planned to rapidly seize European colonies in Asia to create a large defensive perimeter stretching into the Central Pacific; the Japanese would then be free to exploit the resources of Southeast Asia while exhausting the over-stretched Allies by fighting a defensive war.<ref>

.<br>

, calls attention to the fact that “the Allied struggle against Japan exposed the racist underpinnings of the European and American colonial structure. Japan did not invade independent countries in southern Asia. It invaded colonial outposts which the Westerners had dominated for generations, taking absolutely for granted their racial and cultural superiority over their Asian subjects.” Dower goes on to note that, before the horrors of Japanese occupation made themselves felt, many Asians responded favourably to the victories of the Imperial Japanese forces.</ref> To prevent American intervention while securing the perimeter it was further planned to neutralise the United States Pacific Fleet and the American military presence in the Philippines from the outset.<ref name=“Wood 2007 11_12”>

.</ref> On 7 December (8 December in Asian time zones), 1941, Japan attacked British and American holdings with near-simultaneous offensives against Southeast Asia and the Central Pacific.<ref name=“Wohlstetter 1962 341_343”>

.</ref> These included an attack on the American fleet at Pearl Harbor, landings in Thailand and Malaya<ref name=“Wohlstetter 1962 341_343”/> and the battle of Hong Kong.

These attacks led the United States, Britain, China, Australia and several other states to formally declare war on Japan, whereas the Soviet Union, being heavily involved in large-scale hostilities with European Axis countries, preferred to maintain a neutrality agreement with Japan.<ref>

.<br>According to

, Churchill stated: “Russian declaration of war on Japan would be greatly to our advantage, provided, but only provided, that Russians are confident that will not impair their Western Front”.</ref> Germany, followed by the other Axis states, declared war on the United States in solidarity with Japan, citing as justification the American attacks on German submarines and merchant ships that had been ordered by Roosevelt.<ref name=“Events1941”/>

Axis advance stalls (1942–43)

, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British PM Winston Churchill, January 1943]]

In January, the United States, Britain, Soviet Union, China, and 22 smaller or exiled governments issued the Declaration by United Nations, thereby affirming the Atlantic Charter,<ref name = “MinKar 2007 22”>

.</ref> and taking an obligation not to sign separate peace with the Axis powers.

During 1942 Allied officials debated on the appropriate grand strategy to pursue. All agreed that defeating Germany was the primary objective. The Americans favoured a straightforward, large-scale attack on Germany through France. The Soviets were also demanding a second front. The British, on the other hand, argued that military operations should target peripheral areas in order to throw a “ring” around Germany which would wear out German strength, lead to increasing demoralisation, and bolster resistance forces. Germany itself would be subject to a heavy bombing campaign. An offensive against Germany would then be launched primarily by Allied armour without using large-scale armies.<ref>The First Full Dress Debate over Strategic Deployment December 1941 – January 1942 Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare, 1941–1942</ref> Eventually, the British persuaded the Americans that a landing in France was infeasible in 1942 and they should instead focus on driving the Axis out of North Africa.<ref>The Elimination of the Alternatives July–August 1942 Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare, 1941–1942</ref>

At the Casablanca Conference in early 1943 the Allies issued a declaration declaring that they would not negotiate with their enemies and demanded their unconditional surrender. The British and Americans agreed to continue to press the initiative in the Mediterranean by invading Sicily to fully secure the Mediterranean supply routes.<ref>Casablanca—Beginning of an Era: January 1943 Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare, 1943–1944</ref> Although the British argued for further operations in the Balkans to bring Turkey into the war, in May 1943 the Americans extracted a British commitment to limit Allied operations in the Mediterranean to an invasion of the Italian mainland and to invade France in 1944.<ref>The TRIDENT Conference—New Patterns: May 1943 Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare, 1943–1944</ref>

Pacific (1942–43)

By the end of April 1942, Japan and its ally Thailand had almost fully conquered Burma, Malaya, the Dutch East Indies, Singapore, and Rabaul, inflicting severe losses on Allied troops and taking a large number of prisoners.<ref>

.</ref> Despite stubborn resistance at Corregidor, the US possession of the Phillipines was eventually captured in May 1942, forcing its government into exile.<ref>

(Table 11).</ref> On 16 April, in Burma 7,000 British soldiers were encircled by the Japanese 33rd Division during the Battle of Yenangyaung and rescued by the Chinese 38th Division.<ref>

.</ref> Japanese forces also achieved naval victories in the South China Sea, Java Sea and Indian Ocean,<ref>

.</ref> and bombed the Allied naval base at Darwin, Australia. The only real Allied success against Japan was a Chinese victory at Changsha in early January 1942.<ref name=“ChinaBitter158”>

.</ref> These easy victories over unprepared opponents left Japan overconfident, as well as overextended.<ref name=“Perez 1998 145”>

.</ref>

in May 1942. As many, as 10,000 Filipino and 600 US POWs held by the Japanese died, in the forced march back to Camp O'Donnell]]

In early May 1942, Japan initiated operations to capture Port Moresby by amphibious assault and thus sever communications and supply lines between the United States and Australia. The Allies, however, prevented the invasion by intercepting and defeating the Japanese naval forces in the Battle of the Coral Sea.<ref>

.</ref> Japan's next plan, motivated by the earlier Doolittle Raid, was to seize Midway Atoll and lure American carriers into battle to be eliminated; as a diversion, Japan would also send forces to occupy the Aleutian Islands in Alaska.<ref>

.</ref> In early June, Japan put its operations into action but the Americans, having broken Japanese naval codes in late May, were fully aware of the plans and force dispositions and used this knowledge to achieve a decisive victory at Midway over the Imperial Japanese Navy.<ref>

.</ref>

With its capacity for aggressive action greatly diminished as a result of the Midway battle, Japan chose to focus on a belated attempt to capture Port Moresby by an overland campaign in the Territory of Papua.<ref>

.</ref> The Americans planned a counter-attack against Japanese positions in the southern Solomon Islands, primarily Guadalcanal, as a first step towards capturing Rabaul, the main Japanese base in Southeast Asia.<ref>

</ref>

Both plans started in July, but by mid-September, the Battle for Guadalcanal took priority for the Japanese, and troops in New Guinea were ordered to withdraw from the Port Moresby area to the northern part of the island, where they faced Australian and United States troops in the Battle of Buna-Gona.<ref>

.</ref> Guadalcanal soon became a focal point for both sides with heavy commitments of troops and ships in the battle for Guadalcanal. By the start of 1943, the Japanese were defeated on the island and withdrew their troops.<ref>

.</ref> In Burma, Commonwealth forces mounted two operations. The first, an offensive into the Arakan region in late 1942, went disastrously, forcing a retreat back to India by May 1943.<ref name=“Marston 2005 111”>

.</ref> The second was the insertion of irregular forces behind Japanese front-lines in February which, by the end of April, had achieved mixed results.<ref name=“Brayley 2002 9”>

.</ref>

Eastern Front (1942–43)

soldiers on the counterattack, during the Battle of Stalingrad, February 1943]]

Despite considerable losses, in early 1942 Germany and its allies stopped a major Soviet offensive in Central and Southern Russia, keeping most territorial gains they had achieved during the previous year.<ref>

.</ref> In May the Germans defeated Soviet offensives in the Kerch Peninsula and at Kharkiv,<ref>

.</ref> and then launched their main summer offensive against southern Russia in June 1942, to seize the oil fields of the Caucasus and occupy Kuban steppe, while maintaining positions on the northern and central areas of the front. The Germans split Army Group South into two groups: Army Group A struck lower Don River while Army Group B struck south-east to the Caucasus, towards Volga River.<ref name=“Davies 2008 100”>

.</ref> The Soviets decided to make their stand at Stalingrad, which was in the path of the advancing German armies.

By mid-November, the Germans had nearly taken Stalingrad in bitter street fighting when the Soviets began their second winter counter-offensive, starting with an encirclement of German forces at Stalingrad<ref>

.</ref> and an assault on the Rzhev salient near Moscow, though the latter failed disastrously.<ref>

.</ref> By early February 1943, the German Army had taken tremendous losses; German troops at Stalingrad had been forced to surrender,<ref name=“Beevor 1998 383_391”>

.</ref> and the front-line had been pushed back beyond its position before the summer offensive. In mid-February, after the Soviet push had tapered off, the Germans launched another attack on Kharkiv, creating a salient in their front line around the Russian city of Kursk.<ref name=“Erickson 2001 142”>

.</ref>

Western Europe/Atlantic & Mediterranean (1942–43)

bombing raid, by the 8th Air Force, on the Focke Wulf factory at Marienburg, Germany, 9 October 1943]]

Exploiting poor American naval command decisions, the German navy ravaged Allied shipping off the American Atlantic coast.<ref name=“Milner 1990 52”>

.</ref> By November 1941, Commonwealth forces had launched a counter-offensive, Operation Crusader, in North Africa, and reclaimed all the gains the Germans and Italians had made.<ref name=“Beevor 2012 224_228”>

.</ref> In North Africa, the Germans launched an offensive in January, pushing the British back to positions at the Gazala Line by early February,<ref name=“Molinari 2007 91”>

.</ref> followed by a temporary lull in combat which Germany used to prepare for their upcoming offensives.<ref>

.</ref> Concerns the Japanese might use bases in Vichy-held Madagascar caused the British to invade the island in early May 1942.<ref name=“Beevor 2012 380_381”>

.</ref> An Axis offensive in Libya forced an Allied retreat deep inside Egypt until Axis forces were stopped at El Alamein.<ref>

.</ref> On the Continent, raids of Allied commandos on strategic targets, culminating in the disastrous Dieppe Raid,<ref name = “Gordon 2004 129”>

.</ref> demonstrated the Western Allies' inability to launch an invasion of continental Europe without much better preparation, equipment, and operational security.<ref>

.</ref>

In August 1942, the Allies succeeded in repelling a second attack against El Alamein<ref name=“Keegan 1997 277”>

.</ref> and, at a high cost, managed to deliver desperately needed supplies to the besieged Malta.<ref>

.</ref> A few months later, the Allies commenced an attack of their own in Egypt, dislodging the Axis forces and beginning a drive west across Libya.<ref>

.</ref> This attack was followed up shortly after by Anglo-American landings in French North Africa, which resulted in the region joining the Allies.<ref name=“AWP38”>

.</ref> Hitler responded to the French colony's defection by ordering the occupation of Vichy France;<ref name=“AWP38” /> although Vichy forces did not resist this violation of the armistice, they managed to scuttle their fleet to prevent its capture by German forces.<ref>

.</ref> The now pincered Axis forces in Africa withdrew into Tunisia, which was conquered by the Allies in May 1943.<ref>

.</ref>

In early 1943 the British and Americans began the “Combined Bomber Offensive”, a strategic bombing campaign against Germany. The goals were to disrupt the German war economy, reduce German morale, and “de-house” the German civilian population. By the end of the war most German cities would be reduced to rubble and 7,500,000 Germans made homeless.<ref>The Civilians United States Strategic Bombing Survey Summary Report (European War)</ref>

Allies gain momentum (1943–44)

during the Guadalcanal Campaign, in the Pacific theatre, 1942]]

Following the Guadalcanal Campaign, the Allies initiated several operations against Japan in the Pacific. In May 1943, Allied forces were sent to eliminate Japanese forces from the Aleutians,<ref>

.</ref> and soon after began major operations to isolate Rabaul by capturing surrounding islands, and to breach the Japanese Central Pacific perimeter at the Gilbert and Marshall Islands.<ref name = “Kennedy 1999 610”>

.</ref> By the end of March 1944, the Allies had completed both of these objectives, and additionally neutralised the major Japanese base at Truk in the Caroline Islands. In April, the Allies then launched an operation to retake Western New Guinea.<ref>

.</ref>

In the Soviet Union, both the Germans and the Soviets spent the spring and early summer of 1943 making preparations for large offensives in Central Russia. On 4 July 1943, Germany attacked Soviet forces around the Kursk Bulge. Within a week, German forces had exhausted themselves against the Soviets' deeply echeloned and well-constructed defences<ref>

;

.</ref> and, for the first time in the war, Hitler cancelled the operation before it had achieved tactical or operational success.<ref name=“Kershaw 2001 592”>

.</ref> This decision was partially affected by the Western Allies' invasion of Sicily launched on 9 July which, combined with previous Italian failures, resulted in the ousting and arrest of Mussolini later that month.<ref name=“O'Reilly 2001 32”>

.</ref> Also in July 1943 the British firebombed Hamburg killing over 40,000 people.

troops following T-34 tanks, in a counter-offensive on German positions, at the Battle of Kursk, August 1943]]

On 12 July 1943, the Soviets launched their own counter-offensives, thereby dispelling any hopes of the German Army for victory or even stalemate in the east. The Soviet victory at Kursk heralded the downfall of German superiority,<ref>

.</ref> giving the Soviet Union the initiative on the Eastern Front.<ref name=“O'Reilly 2001 35”>

.</ref><ref name=“Healy 1992 90”>

.</ref> The Germans attempted to stabilise their eastern front along the hastily fortified Panther-Wotan line, however, the Soviets broke through it at Smolensk and by the Lower Dnieper Offensives.<ref>

.</ref>

On 3 September 1943, the Western Allies invaded the Italian mainland, following an Italian armistice with the Allies.<ref name=“Kolko 1990 45”>

: “On September 3, as Allied forces landed in Italy, Badoglio agreed to a secret armistice in the hope the Allies would land a major force north of Rome and save his government and the king. When he learned such a rescue would not occur he desperately attempted to call off his bargain with Eisenhower, who cut short the matter on September 8 by announcing news of its existence. The next day the hero of Abyssinia, his king, and a small retinue deserted Rome for the southeast tip of Italy, leaving most of Italy to the Nazis.”</ref> Germany responded by disarming Italian forces, seizing military control of Italian areas,<ref name=“Mazower 2008 362”>

.</ref> and creating a series of defensive lines.<ref>

.</ref> German special forces then rescued Mussolini, who then soon established a new client state in German occupied Italy named the Italian Social Republic,<ref>

.</ref> causing an Italian civil war. The Western Allies fought through several lines until reaching the main German defensive line in mid-November.<ref>

.</ref>

German operations in the Atlantic also suffered. By May 1943, as Allied counter-measures became increasingly effective, the resulting sizeable German submarine losses forced a temporary halt of the German Atlantic naval campaign.<ref>

.</ref> In November 1943, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill met with Chiang Kai-shek in Cairo and then with Joseph Stalin in Tehran.<ref name=“Kolko 1990 211,235,267_268”>

.</ref> The former conference determined the post-war return of Japanese territory,<ref name=“Iriye 1981 154”>

.</ref> while the latter included agreement that the Western Allies would invade Europe in 1944 and that the Soviet Union would declare war on Japan within three months of Germany's defeat.<ref name=“polley148”>

.</ref>

soldiers from the British Commonwealth Forces, in the Ngakyeduak Pass; Burma Campaign, 6 February 1944]]

From November 1943, during the seven-week Battle of Changde, the Chinese forced Japan to fight a costly war of attrition, while awaiting Allied relief.<ref name=“Beevor 2012 268_274”>

.</ref><ref name=H161>

.</ref><ref name=“Hsu Chang 412-416”>

.</ref> In January 1944, the Allies launched a series of attacks in Italy against the line at Monte Cassino and attempted to outflank it with landings at Anzio.<ref>

.</ref> By the end of January, a major Soviet offensive expelled German forces from the Leningrad region,<ref name=“Glantz 2002 327_366”>

.</ref> ending the longest and most lethal siege in history.

The following Soviet offensive was halted on the pre-war Estonian border by the German Army Group North aided by Estonians hoping to re-establish national independence. This delay slowed subsequent Soviet operations in the Baltic Sea region.<ref name=“Glantz 2002 367_414”>

.</ref> By late May 1944, the Soviets had liberated Crimea, largely expelled Axis forces from Ukraine, and made incursions into Romania, which were repulsed by the Axis troops.<ref name=“Chubarov 2001 122”>

.</ref> The Allied offensives in Italy had succeeded and, at the expense of allowing several German divisions to retreat, on 4 June, Rome was captured.<ref>

;

.<br>The weeks after the fall of Rome saw a dramatic upswing in German atrocities in Italy (

). The period featured massacres with victims in the hundreds at Civitella (

;

), Fosse Ardeatine (

), and Sant'Anna di Stazzema (

), and is capped with the Marzabotto massacre.</ref>

The Allies experienced mixed fortunes in mainland Asia. In March 1944, the Japanese launched the first of two invasions, an operation against British positions in Assam, India,<ref name=“Lightbody 2004 224”>

.</ref> and soon besieged Commonwealth positions at Imphal and Kohima.<ref name=“Zeiler”>

.</ref> In May 1944, British forces mounted a counter-offensive that drove Japanese troops back to Burma,<ref name=“Zeiler”/> and Chinese forces that had invaded northern Burma in late 1943 besieged Japanese troops in Myitkyina.<ref>

.</ref> The second Japanese invasion attempted to destroy China's main fighting forces, secure railways between Japanese-held territory and capture Allied airfields.<ref>

.</ref> By June, the Japanese had conquered the province of Henan and begun a renewed attack against Changsha in the Hunan province.<ref>

.</ref>

Allies close in (1944)

, during the Invasion of Normandy on D-Day, 6 June 1944]]

On 6 June 1944 (known as D-Day), after three years of Soviet pressure,<ref name=rees406>

: “Stalin always believed that Britain and America were delaying the second front so that the Soviet Union would bear the brunt of the war”.</ref> the Western Allies invaded northern France. After reassigning several Allied divisions from Italy, they also attacked southern France.<ref name=“Weinberg 2005 695”>

.</ref> These landings were successful, and led to the defeat of the German Army units in France. Paris was liberated by the local resistance assisted by the Free French Forces on 25 August<ref>

.</ref> and the Western Allies continued to push back German forces in Western Europe during the latter part of the year. An attempt to advance into northern Germany spearheaded by a major airborne operation in the Netherlands ended with a failure.<ref>

.</ref> After that, the Western Allies slowly pushed into Germany, unsuccessfully trying to cross the Rur river in a large offensive. In Italy the Allied advance also slowed down, when they ran into the last major German defensive line.

On 22 June, the Soviets launched a strategic offensive in Belarus (known as “Operation Bagration”) that resulted in the almost complete destruction of the German Army Group Centre.<ref name=“Zaloga 1996 7”>

: “It was the most calamitous defeat of all the German armed forces in World War II”.</ref> Soon after that, another Soviet strategic offensive forced German troops from Western Ukraine and Eastern Poland. The successful advance of Soviet troops prompted resistance forces in Poland to initiate several uprisings, though the largest of these, in Warsaw, as well as a Slovak Uprising in the south, were not assisted by the Soviets and were put down by German forces.<ref>

.</ref> The Red Army's strategic offensive in eastern Romania cut off and destroyed the considerable German troops there and triggered a successful coup d'état in Romania and in Bulgaria, followed by those countries' shift to the Allied side.<ref name=“countrystudies.us”>

</ref>

carrying supplies to the US 1st Cavalry Division during the Battle of Leyte, 1944]] In September 1944, Soviet Red Army troops advanced into Yugoslavia and forced the rapid withdrawal of the German Army Groups E and F in Greece, Albania and Yugoslavia to rescue them from being cut off.<ref name=“Evans 2008 653”>

.</ref> By this point, the Communist-led Partisans under Marshal Josip Broz Tito, who had led an increasingly successful guerrilla campaign against the occupation since 1941, controlled much of the territory of Yugoslavia and were engaged in delaying efforts against the German forces further south. In northern Serbia, the Red Army, with limited support from Bulgarian forces, assisted the Partisans in a joint liberation of the capital city of Belgrade on 20 October. A few days later, the Soviets launched a massive assault against German-occupied Hungary that lasted until the fall of Budapest in February 1945.<ref>

.</ref> In contrast with impressive Soviet victories in the Balkans, the bitter Finnish resistance to the Soviet offensive in the Karelian Isthmus denied the Soviets occupation of Finland and led to the signing of Soviet-Finnish armistice on relatively mild conditions,<ref>

</ref><ref>

.</ref> with a subsequent shift to the Allied side by Finland.

By the start of July, Commonwealth forces in Southeast Asia had repelled the Japanese sieges in Assam, pushing the Japanese back to the Chindwin River<ref name=“Marston 2005 120”>

.</ref> while the Chinese captured Myitkyina. In China, the Japanese were having greater successes, having finally captured Changsha in mid-June and the city of Hengyang by early August.<ref>

.</ref> Soon after, they further invaded the province of Guangxi, winning major engagements against Chinese forces at Guilin and Liuzhou by the end of November<ref>

.</ref> and successfully linking up their forces in China and Indochina by the middle of December.<ref name=“Drea 2003 54”>

.</ref>

In the Pacific, American forces continued to press back the Japanese perimeter. In mid-June 1944 they began their offensive against the Mariana and Palau islands, and decisively defeated Japanese forces in the Battle of the Philippine Sea. These defeats led to the resignation of the Japanese Prime Minister, Hideki Tōjō, and provided the United States with air bases to launch intensive heavy bomber attacks on the Japanese home islands. In late October, American forces invaded the Filipino island of Leyte; soon after, Allied naval forces scored another large victory during the Battle of Leyte Gulf, one of the largest naval battles in history.<ref>

.</ref>

Axis collapse, Allied victory (1944–45)

held in February 1945, with Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin]]

On 16 December 1944, Germany attempted its last desperate measure for success on the Western Front by using most of its remaining reserves to launch a massive counter-offensive in the Ardennes to attempt to split the Western Allies, encircle large portions of Western Allied troops and capture their primary supply port at Antwerp in order to prompt a political settlement.<ref name=“parkerxiii”>

.</ref> By January, the offensive had been repulsed with no strategic objectives fulfilled.<ref name=“parkerxiii”/> In Italy, the Western Allies remained stalemated at the German defensive line. In mid-January 1945, the Soviets and Poles attacked in Poland, pushing from the Vistula to the Oder river in Germany, and overran East Prussia.<ref>

.</ref> On 4 February, US, British, and Soviet leaders met for the Yalta Conference. They agreed on the occupation of post-war Germany, and on when the Soviet Union would join the war against Japan.<ref>

.</ref>

In February, the Soviets invaded Silesia and Pomerania, while Western Allies entered Western Germany and closed to the Rhine river. By March, the Western Allies crossed the Rhine north and south of the Ruhr, encircling the German Army Group B,<ref>

.</ref> while the Soviets advanced to Vienna. In early April, the Western Allies finally pushed forward in Italy and swept across Western Germany, while Soviet and Polish forces stormed Berlin in late April. The American and Soviet forces linked up on Elbe river on 25 April. On 30 April 1945, the Reichstag was captured, signalling the military defeat of the Third Reich.<ref name=“Shepardson 1998”>

.</ref>

Several changes in leadership occurred during this period. On 12 April, President Roosevelt died and was succeeded by Harry Truman. Benito Mussolini was killed by Italian partisans on 28 April.<ref name=“O'Reilly 2001 244”>

.</ref> Two days later, Hitler committed suicide, and was succeeded by Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz.<ref>

.</ref>

after its capture by the Allies, 3 June 1945]]

German forces surrendered in Italy on 29 April. Total and unconditional surrender was signed on 7 May, to be effective by the end of 8 May.<ref name=“Evans 2008 737”>

.</ref> German Army Group Centre resisted in Prague until 11 May.<ref name=“Glantz 1998 34”>

.</ref>

In the Pacific theatre, American forces accompanied by the forces of the Philippine Commonwealth advanced in the Philippines, clearing Leyte by the end of April 1945. They landed on Luzon in January 1945 and captured Manila in March following a battle which reduced the city to ruins. Fighting continued on Luzon, Mindanao, and other islands of the Philippines until the end of the war.<ref>

</ref> On the night of 9–10 March, B-29 bombers of the US Army Air Forces struck Tokyo with incendiary bombs, which killed 100,000 people within a few hours. Over the next five months, American bombers firebombed 66 other Japanese cities, causing the untold numbers of destruction of buildings and the deaths between 350,000-500,000 Japanese civilians.<ref>

</ref>

signs the Japanese Instrument of Surrender onboard the USS Missouri, 2 September 1945]]

In May 1945, Australian troops landed in Borneo, overrunning the oilfields there. British, American, and Chinese forces defeated the Japanese in northern Burma in March, and the British pushed on to reach Rangoon by 3 May.<ref name=“Drea 2003 57”>

.</ref> Chinese forces started to counterattack in Battle of West Hunan that occurred between 6 April and 7 June 1945. American forces also moved towards Japan, taking Iwo Jima by March, and Okinawa by the end of June.<ref>

.</ref> At the same time American bombers were destroying Japanese cities, American submarines cut off Japanese imports, drastically reducing Japan's ability to supply its overseas forces.<ref name=“results of german and american submarines”>

</ref>

On 11 July, Allied leaders met in Potsdam, Germany. They confirmed earlier agreements about Germany,<ref name=“Williams 2006 90”>

.</ref> and reiterated the demand for unconditional surrender of all Japanese forces by Japan, specifically stating that “the alternative for Japan is prompt and utter destruction”.<ref name=“Miscamble 2007 201”>

.</ref> During this conference the United Kingdom held its general election, and Clement Attlee replaced Churchill as Prime Minister.<ref name=“Miscamble 2007 203_204”>

.</ref>

As Japan continued to ignore the Potsdam terms issued to them on 27 July, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in early August. Like the Japanese cities previously bombed by American airmen, the US and its allies justified the atomic bombings as military necessity in order to avoid invading the Japanese home islands which would cost the lives of between 250,000-500,000 Allied troops and millions of Japanese troops and civilians.<ref>

</ref> Between the two bombings, the Soviets, pursuant to the Yalta agreement, invaded Japanese-held Manchuria, and quickly defeated the Kwantung Army, which was the largest Japanese fighting force.<ref>

.</ref><ref name=“Pape 1993”>

.</ref> The Red Army also captured Sakhalin Island and the Kuril Islands. On 15 August 1945 Japan surrendered, with the surrender documents finally signed aboard the deck of the American battleship USS ''Missouri'' on 2 September 1945, ending the war.<ref name=“Beevor 2012 776”>

.</ref>

Aftermath

in January 1945, after the deliberate destruction of the city, by the occupying German forces. Over 85% of the buildings in the city were destroyed, and 200,000 civilians murdered in massacres]]

File:EasternBloc BorderChange38-48.svg

an border changes, the creation of a Communist Bloc, and start of the Cold War]]

The Allies established occupation administrations in Austria and Germany. The former became a neutral state, non-aligned with any political bloc. The latter was divided into western and eastern occupation zones controlled by the Western Allies and the USSR, accordingly. A denazification program in Germany led to the prosecution of Nazi war criminals and the removal of ex-Nazis from power, although this policy moved towards amnesty and re-integration of ex-Nazis into West German society.<ref name=“Frei 2002 41_66”>

.</ref>

Germany lost a quarter of its pre-war (1937) territory, the eastern territories: Silesia, Neumark and most of Pomerania were taken over by Poland; East Prussia was divided between Poland and the USSR, followed by an expulsion of the 9 million Germans from these provinces, as well as of 3 million Germans from the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia, to Germany. By the 1950s, every fifth West German was a refugee from the east. The USSR took over the Polish provinces east of the Curzon line, from which 3 million Poles were expelled;<ref name=“stalinswars43”>

.</ref> North-Eastern Romania,<ref name=“stalinswars55”>

.</ref><ref name=“shirer794”>

.</ref> parts of eastern Finland,<ref name=“ckpipe”>

.</ref> and the three Baltic states were also incorporated into the USSR.<ref name=“Wettig 2008 20_21”>

.</ref><ref name=“Senn 2007 ?”>

.</ref>

In an effort to maintain peace,<ref name=“Yoder 1997 39”>

.</ref> the Allies formed the United Nations, which officially came into existence on 24 October 1945,<ref>

</ref> and adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, as a common standard for all member nations.<ref name=“Waltz 2002”>

.<br>The UDHR is viewable here.</ref> The great powers that were the victors of the war—the United States, Soviet Union, China, Britain, and France—formed the permanent members of the UN's Security Council.<ref name=“The UN Security Council”/> The five permanent members remain so to the present, although there have been two seat changes, between the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China in 1971, and between the Soviet Union and its successor state, the Russian Federation, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The alliance between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union had begun to deteriorate even before the war was over.<ref name=“Kantowicz 2000 6”>

.</ref>

Germany had been de facto divided, and two independent states, Federal Republic of Germany and German Democratic Republic<ref name=“Wettig 2008 96_100”>

.</ref> were created within the borders of Allied and Soviet occupation zones, accordingly. The rest of Europe was also divided onto Western and Soviet spheres of influence.<ref name=“Trachtenberg 1999 33”>

.</ref> Most eastern and central European countries fell into the Soviet sphere, which led to establishment of Communist led regimes, with full or partial support of the Soviet occupation authorities. As a result, Poland, Hungary, East Germany,<ref name=“Applebaum 2012”>

.</ref> Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Albania<ref name=“Naimark 2010”>

.</ref> became Soviet Satellite states. Communist Yugoslavia conducted a fully independent policy, causing tension with the USSR.<ref name=“Swain 1992”>

.</ref>

Post-war division of the world was formalised by two international military alliances, the United States-led NATO and the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact;<ref name=“Borstelmann 2005 318”>

.</ref> the long period of political tensions and military competition between them, the Cold War, would be accompanied by an unprecedented arms race and proxy wars.<ref>

.</ref>

In Asia, the United States led the occupation of Japan and administrated Japan's former islands in the Western Pacific, while the Soviets annexed Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands.<ref name=“Weinberg 2005 911”>

.</ref> Korea, formerly under Japanese rule, was divided and occupied by the US in the South and the Soviet Union in the North between 1945 and 1948. Separate republics emerged on both sides of the 38th parallel in 1948, each claiming to be the legitimate government for all of Korea, which led ultimately to the Korean War.<ref>

.</ref>

In China, nationalist and communist forces resumed the civil war in June 1946. Communist forces were victorious and established the People's Republic of China on the mainland, while nationalist forces retreated to Taiwan in 1949.<ref name=“Lynch 2010 12_13”>

.</ref> In the Middle East, the Arab rejection of the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine and the creation of Israel marked the escalation of the Arab-Israeli conflict. While European colonial powers attempted to retain some or all of their colonial empires, their losses of prestige and resources during the war rendered this unsuccessful, leading to decolonisation.<ref name=“JMRoberts 1996 589”>

.</ref><ref>

.</ref>

The global economy suffered heavily from the war, although participating nations were affected differently. The US emerged much richer than any other nation; it had a baby boom and by 1950 its gross domestic product per person was much higher than that of any of the other powers and it dominated the world economy.<ref>

;

.</ref> The UK and US pursued a policy of industrial disarmament in Western Germany in the years 1945–1948.<ref name = “Balabkins 1964 207”>

.</ref> Due to international trade interdependencies this led to European economic stagnation and delayed European recovery for several years.<ref>

.</ref><ref name = “Balabkins 1964 208,209”>

.</ref>

Recovery began with the mid-1948 currency reform in Western Germany, and was sped up by the liberalisation of European economic policy that the Marshall plan (1948–1951) both directly and indirectly caused.<ref>

.</ref><ref name = “Balabkins 1964 212”>

.</ref> The post 1948 West German recovery has been called the German economic miracle.<ref>

.</ref> Also the Italian<ref>

.</ref> and French economies rebounded.<ref>

.</ref> By contrast, the United Kingdom was in a state of economic ruin,<ref>

.</ref> and although it received a quarter of the total Marshall Plan assistance, more than any other European country<!–twice as much as Germany for example–>,<ref>

.</ref> continued relative economic decline for decades.<ref>

.</ref>

The Soviet Union, despite enormous human and material losses, also experienced rapid increase in production in the immediate post-war era.<ref name=“Smith 1993 32”>

.</ref> Japan experienced incredibly rapid economic growth, becoming one of the most powerful economies in the world by the 1980s.<ref>

.</ref> China returned to its pre-war industrial production by 1952.<ref>

</ref>

Impact

Casualties and war crimes

File:World War II Casualties2.svg

Estimates for the total casualties of the war vary, because many deaths went unrecorded. Most suggest that some 75 million people died in the war, including about 20 million soldiers and 40 million civilians.<ref name=“WWII: C&C”>

</ref><ref>

</ref><ref>

</ref> Many civilians died because of disease, starvation, massacres, mass-bombing, and deliberate genocide. The Soviet Union lost around 27 million people during the war,<ref>

.</ref> including 8.7 million military and 19 million civilian deaths. The largest portion of military dead were ethnic Russians (5,756,000), followed by ethnic Ukrainians (1,377,400).<ref name=“Ell&Mak 1994”>

.</ref> One of every four Soviet citizens was killed or wounded in that war.<ref>

.</ref> Germany sustained 5.3 million military losses, mostly on the Eastern Front and during the final battles in Germany.<ref name=“Herf 2003”>

.</ref>

Of the total deaths in World War II, approximately 85 percent—mostly Soviet and Chinese—were on the Allied side and 15 percent on the Axis side. Many of these deaths were caused by war crimes committed by German and Japanese forces in occupied territories. An estimated 11<ref>

</ref> to 17 million<ref name=Niewyk45>

.</ref> civilians died as a direct or indirect result of Nazi ideological policies, including the systematic genocide of around six million Jews during the Holocaust along with a further five million ethnic Poles and other Slavs, including Ukrainians and Belarusians,<ref>

</ref> Roma, homosexuals and other ethnic and minority groups.<ref name=Niewyk45/>

Roughly 7.5 million civilians died in China under Japanese occupation.<ref>

.</ref> Hundreds of thousands (varying estimates) of ethnic Serbs, along with gypsies and Jews, were murdered by the Axis-aligned Croatian Ustaše in Yugoslavia,<ref>

.</ref> with retribution-related killings of Croatian civilians just after the war ended.

, during the Nanking Massacre, in December 1937]]

The best-known Japanese atrocity was the Nanking Massacre, in which several hundred thousand Chinese civilians were raped and murdered.<ref>

.</ref> Between 3 million to more than 10 million civilians, mostly Chinese, were killed by the Japanese occupation forces.<ref>

</ref> Mitsuyoshi Himeta reported 2.7 million casualties occurred during the Sankō Sakusen. General Yasuji Okamura implemented the policy in Heipei and Shantung.<ref>

.</ref>

The Axis forces employed limited biological and chemical weapons. The Imperial Japanese Army used a variety of such weapons during their invasion and occupation of China (see Unit 731)<ref>

</ref><ref>

.</ref> and in early conflicts against the Soviets.<ref>

.</ref> Both the Germans and Japanese tested such weapons against civilians<ref>

.</ref> and, in some cases, on prisoners of war.<ref>

</ref>

While many of the Axis's acts were brought to trial in the world's first international tribunals,<ref>

.</ref> incidents caused by the Allies were not. Examples of such Allied actions include population transfers in the Soviet Union, Operation Keelhaul,<ref>

</ref> expulsion of Germans after World War II,<ref>According to

, at least 500,000 Germans died.</ref> rape during the occupation of Germany,<ref>

estimates 17,800 cases of rape committed by American GIs in Europe.

, notes that Lilly “encountered major resistance to publication of his work, which was published in France and Italy before the first English edition in 2007.”</ref> and the Soviet Union's Katyn massacre, for which Germans faced counter-accusations of responsibility. Large numbers of famine deaths can also be partially attributed to the war, such as the Bengal famine of 1943 and the Vietnamese famine of 1944–45.<ref>

</ref> Brutalised by war and fuelled by racist propaganda, many American soldiers in the Pacific mutilated corpses and kept grisly war trophies.<ref>

. For example, many GIs would keep Japanese body parts, particularly ears, of their dead opponents, with one American soldier famously sending Roosevelt a letter opener fashioned from the bone of a dead Japanese soldier. The president, for some reason, declined to accept it. Dower's book deals comprehensively with the virulent and officially-sanctioned racism of the day, which all sides were guilty of, and its terrible consequences.</ref>

It has been suggested by some historians, e.g. Jörg Friedrich, that the mass-bombing of civilian areas in enemy territory, including Tokyo and most notably the German cities of Dresden, Hamburg and Cologne by Western Allies, which resulted in the destruction of more than 160 cities and the deaths of more than 600,000 German civilians be considered as war crimes.<ref>

</ref> However, no positive or specific customary international humanitarian law with respect to aerial warfare existed before and during World War II.<ref>

</ref>

Concentration camps and slave work

after disembarking at the German Auschwitz concentration camp. To be sent “right”; meant a person was chosen to work as forced labour. To be sent “left”; meant a person was sent immediately to the gas chambers, May 1944]]

The German, Nazis were responsible for The Holocaust, the killing of approximately six million Jews (overwhelmingly Ashkenazim), as well as two million ethnic Poles and four million others who were deemed “unworthy of life” (including the disabled and mentally ill, Soviet prisoners of war, homosexuals, Freemasons, Jehovah's Witnesses, and Romani) as part of a programme of deliberate extermination. About 12 million, most of whom were Eastern Europeans, were employed in the German war economy as forced labourers.<ref name=“compensation”>

</ref>

In addition to Nazi concentration camps, the Soviet gulags (labour camps) led to the death of citizens of occupied countries such as Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, as well as German prisoners of war (POWs) and even Soviet citizens who had been or were thought to be supporters of the Nazis.<ref>

.</ref> Sixty percent of Soviet POWs of the Germans died during the war.<ref>

.</ref> Richard Overy gives the number of 5.7 million Soviet POWs. Of those, 57 percent died or were killed, a total of 3.6&nbsp;million.<ref name=“Overy 2004 568_569”>

.</ref> Soviet ex-POWs and repatriated civilians were treated with great suspicion as potential Nazi collaborators, and some of them were sent to the Gulag upon being checked by the NKVD.<ref>Zemskov V.N. On repatriation of Soviet citizens. Istoriya SSSR., 1990, No.4, (in Russian). See also ://scepsis.ru/library/id_1234.html (online version), and

;

.</ref>

, sent as forced labour to the German run Nazi Auschwitz concentration camp, in 1942. Of the more than 216,000 children sent to the concentration camp by the Nazis, less than 650 survived until liberation]]

Japanese prisoner-of-war camps, many of which were used as labour camps, also had high death rates. The International Military Tribunal for the Far East found the death rate of Western prisoners was 27.1 percent (for American POWs, 37 percent),<ref>

</ref> seven times that of POWs under the Germans and Italians.<ref>

.</ref> While 37,583 prisoners from the UK, 28,500 from the Netherlands, and 14,473 from United States were released after the surrender of Japan, the number for the Chinese was only 56.<ref>

.</ref>

According to historian Zhifen Ju, at least five million Chinese civilians from northern China and Manchukuo were enslaved between 1935 and 1941 by the East Asia Development Board, or Kōain, for work in mines and war industries. After 1942, the number reached 10 million.<ref name=“zhifen2002”>

</ref> The US Library of Congress estimates that in Java, between 4 and 10 million romusha (Japanese: “manual laborers”), were forced to work by the Japanese military. About 270,000 of these Javanese labourers were sent to other Japanese-held areas in South East Asia, and only 52,000 were repatriated to Java.<ref name=“indonesiaww2”>

</ref>

On 19 February 1942, Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, interning about 100,000 Japanese living on the West Coast. Canada had a similar program.<ref>

</ref><ref>

</ref> <!– better references needed –> In addition, 14,000 German and Italian citizens who had been assessed as being security risks were also interned.<ref name = “Kennedy 2001 749_750”>

.</ref>

In accordance with the Allied agreement made at the Yalta Conference millions of POWs and civilians were used as forced labour by the Soviet Union.<ref>

.</ref> In Hungary's case, Hungarians were forced to work for the Soviet Union until 1955.<ref>

</ref>

Occupation

; where many captured Jewish, Polish, and Soviet inmates were sent to perform forced labour work, and later exterminated]]

In Europe, occupation came under two forms. In Western, Northern and Central Europe (France, Norway, Denmark, the Low Countries, and the annexed portions of Czechoslovakia) Germany established economic policies through which it collected roughly 69.5 billion reichmarks (27.8 billion US Dollars) by the end of the war; this figure does not include the sizeable plunder of industrial products, military equipment, raw materials and other goods.<ref>

.</ref> Thus, the income from occupied nations was over 40 percent of the income Germany collected from taxation, a figure which increased to nearly 40 percent of total German income as the war went on.<ref name=“Milward 1979 138”>

.</ref>

In the East, the much hoped for bounties of Lebensraum were never attained as fluctuating front-lines and Soviet scorched earth policies denied resources to the German invaders.<ref name=“Milward 1992 148”>

.</ref> Unlike in the West, the Nazi racial policy encouraged excessive brutality against what it considered to be the “inferior people” of Slavic descent; most German advances were thus followed by mass executions.<ref>

.</ref> Although resistance groups did form in most occupied territories, they did not significantly hamper German operations in either the East<ref>

.</ref> or the West<ref>

.</ref> until late 1943.

In Asia, Japan termed nations under its occupation as being part of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, essentially a Japanese hegemony which it claimed was for purposes of liberating colonised peoples.<ref>

.</ref> Although Japanese forces were originally welcomed as liberators from European domination in many territories, their excessive brutality turned local public opinions against them within weeks.<ref name=“GSWW6_266” /> During Japan's initial conquest it captured

of oil (~5.5×105 tonnes) left behind by retreating Allied forces, and by 1943 was able to get production in the Dutch East Indies up to

, 76 percent of its 1940 output rate.<ref name=“GSWW6_266”>

.</ref>

Home fronts and production

File:WorldWarII-GDP-Relations-Allies-Axis-simple.svg

In Europe, before the outbreak of the war, the Allies had significant advantages in both population and economics. In 1938, the Western Allies (United Kingdom, France, Poland and British Dominions) had a 30 percent larger population and a 30 percent higher gross domestic product than the European Axis (Germany and Italy); if colonies are included, it then gives the Allies more than a 5:1 advantage in population and nearly 2:1 advantage in GDP.<ref name=“6Econ3”>

.</ref> In Asia at the same time, China had roughly six times the population of Japan, but only an 89 percent higher GDP; this is reduced to three times the population and only a 38 percent higher GDP if Japanese colonies are included.<ref name=“6Econ3”/>

Though the Allies' economic and population advantages were largely mitigated during the initial rapid blitzkrieg attacks of Germany and Japan, they became the decisive factor by 1942, after the United States and Soviet Union joined the Allies, as the war largely settled into one of attrition.<ref name=“6Econ2”>

.</ref> While the Allies' ability to out-produce the Axis is often attributed to the Allies having more access to natural resources, other factors, such as Germany and Japan's reluctance to employ women in the labour force,<ref>

.</ref> Allied strategic bombing,<ref>

</ref> and Germany's late shift to a war economy<ref>

.</ref> contributed significantly. Additionally, neither Germany nor Japan planned to fight a protracted war, and were not equipped to do so.<ref>

;

..</ref> To improve their production, Germany and Japan used millions of slave labourers;<ref>

</ref> Germany used about 12 million people, mostly from Eastern Europe,<ref name=“compensation”/> while Japan pressed more than 18 million people in Far East Asia.<ref name=“zhifen2002”/><ref name=“indonesiaww2”/>

Advances in technology and warfare

Aircraft were used for reconnaissance, as fighters, bombers, and ground-support, and each role was advanced considerably. Innovation included airlift (the capability to quickly move limited high-priority supplies, equipment, and personnel);<ref name=“EncWWII_76”>

.</ref> and of strategic bombing (the bombing of enemy industrial and population centers to destroy the enemy's ability to wage war).<ref>

.</ref> Anti-aircraft weaponry also advanced, including defences such as radar and surface-to-air artillery, such as the German 88 mm gun. The use of the jet aircraft was pioneered and, though late introduction meant it had little impact, it led to jets becoming standard in worldwide air forces.<ref>

;

.</ref>

Advances were made in nearly every aspect of naval warfare, most notably with aircraft carriers and submarines. Although aeronautical warfare had relatively little success at the start of the war, actions at Taranto, Pearl Harbor, and the Coral Sea established the carrier as the dominant capital ship in place of the battleship.<ref name=“EncWWII_163”>

.</ref><ref>

</ref><ref>

</ref>

In the Atlantic, escort carriers proved to be a vital part of Allied convoys, increasing the effective protection radius and helping to close the Mid-Atlantic gap.<ref>

.</ref> Carriers were also more economical than battleships due to the relatively low cost of aircraft<ref>

.</ref> and their not requiring to be as heavily armoured.<ref>

.</ref> Submarines, which had proved to be an effective weapon during the First World War<ref name=“Bur&Ryd 1995 15”>

.</ref> were anticipated by all sides to be important in the second. The British focused development on anti-submarine weaponry and tactics, such as sonar and convoys, while Germany focused on improving its offensive capability, with designs such as the Type VII submarine and wolfpack tactics.<ref name=“Bur&Ryd 1995 16”>

.</ref> Gradually, improving Allied technologies such as the Leigh light, hedgehog, squid, and homing torpedoes proved victorious.

Land warfare changed from the static front lines of World War&nbsp;I to increased mobility and combined arms. The tank, which had been used predominantly for infantry support in the First World War, had evolved into the primary weapon.<ref name=“EncWWII_125”>

.</ref> In the late 1930s, tank design was considerably more advanced than it had been during World War I,<ref>

</ref> and advances continued throughout the war in increasing speed, armour and firepower.

At the start of the war, most commanders thought enemy tanks should be met by tanks with superior specifications.<ref name=“EncWWII_108”>

.</ref> This idea was challenged by the poor performance of the relatively light early tank guns against armour, and German doctrine of avoiding tank-versus-tank combat. This, along with Germany's use of combined arms, were among the key elements of their highly successful blitzkrieg tactics across Poland and France.<ref name=“EncWWII_125”/> Many means of destroying tanks, including indirect artillery, anti-tank guns (both towed and self-propelled), mines, short-ranged infantry antitank weapons, and other tanks were utilised.<ref name=“EncWWII_108” /> Even with large-scale mechanisation, infantry remained the backbone of all forces,<ref name=“EncWWII_734”>

.</ref> and throughout the war, most infantry were equipped similarly to World War I.<ref name=“Comp_221”>

.</ref>

The portable machine gun spread, a notable example being the German MG42, and various submachine guns which were suited to close combat in urban and jungle settings.<ref name=“Comp_221” /> The assault rifle, a late war development incorporating many features of the rifle and submachine gun, became the standard postwar infantry weapon for most armed forces.<ref>

</ref><ref>

</ref>

Most major belligerents attempted to solve the problems of complexity and security presented by using large codebooks for cryptography with the use of ciphering machines, the most well known being the German Enigma machine.<ref>

.</ref> SIGINT (signals intelligence) was the countering process of decryption, with the notable examples being the Allied breaking of Japanese naval codes<ref name=Schoenherr>

</ref> and British Ultra, a pioneering method for decoding Enigma benefiting from information given to Britain by the Polish Cipher Bureau, which had been decoding early versions of Enigma for seven years before the war.<ref>

</ref> Another aspect of military intelligence was the use of deception, which the Allies used to great effect, such as in operations Mincemeat and Bodyguard.<ref name=Schoenherr/><ref>

</ref> Other technological and engineering feats achieved during, or as a result of, the war include the world's first programmable computers (Z3, Colossus, and ENIAC), guided missiles and modern rockets, the Manhattan Project's development of nuclear weapons, operations research and the development of artificial harbours and oil pipelines under the English Channel.<ref>

</ref>

List of all War Declarations and other outbreakes of hostilities

Regarding type of war outbreaks (fourth column): A = Attack without a declaration of war, U = State of war emerged through ultimatum, WD = State of war emerged after formal declaration of war, D = Diplomatic breakdown leading to a state of war. In some cases a diplomatic breakdown later led to a state of war. Such cases are mentioned in the comments.

Date Attacking Nation(s) Attecked Nation(s) Type Comments
1939-09-01 Germany Poland A
1939-09-03 United Kingdom,France Germany U European press used “World War” for the first time.
1939-09-03 Australia,New Zealand Germany WD
1939-09-06 South Africa Germany WD
1939-09-10 Canada Germany WD
1939-09-17 Soviet Union Poland A
1939-11-30 Soviet Union Finland A Diplomatic breakdown day before
1940-04-09 Germany Denmark,Norway A
1940-05-15 Germany Belgium,Netherlands WD The German offensive in western Europe
1940-06-10 Italy France,United Kingdom WD At a time when France already was about to fall
1940-06-10 Canada Italy WD
1940-06-11 South Africa,Australia,New Zealand Italy WD
1940-06-12 Egypt Italy D
1940-07-04 France* United Kingdom A Vichy France Navy and colonies were attacked by UK, but no war was declared
1940-10-28 Italy Greece U
1941-04-06 Germany Greece WD
1941-04-06 Germany,Bulgaria Yuogoslavia A
1941-04-06 Italy Yugoslavia WD
1941-04-10 Hungary Yuogoslavia A
1941-04-23 Greece Bulgaria D
1941-06-22 Germany*, Italy, Romania Soviet Union WD

  • The German declaration of war was given at the time of the attack<ref>Willian L Shirer, “Rise and Fall of the third Reich”</ref>

|-

1941-06-24 Denmark Soviet Union D Denmark was ockupied by Germany
1941-06-25 Finland Soviet Union A Second war between these nations.
1941-06-27 Hungary Soviet Union WD Diplomatic breakdown 1941-06-24
1941-06-30 France Soviet Union D
1941-12-07 United Kingdom Romania,Hungary,Finland U Dipl. breakdowns 1941-02-11,1941-04-07 and 1941-08-01
1941-12-07 Japan United States A WD with Japanese eyes and war traditions. A western WD came the day after.
1941-12-08 Japan United Kingdom WD
1941-12-08 Canada,South Africa Japan WD
1941-12-08 China Germany*,Italy*,Japan WD

  • Diplomatic breakdown 1941-07-02

|-

1941-12-09 Australia,New Zealand Japan WD
1941-12-11 Germany,Italy United States WD
1941-12-12 Romania United States WD
1941-12-13 Bulgaria United Kingdom,United States WD
1941-12-13 Hungary United States WD
1942-01-24 United States Denmark D
1942-05-28 Mexico Germany,Italy,Japan WD Diplomatic breakdowns in all three cases 1941
1942-08-22 Brazil Germany,Italy WD Diplomatic breakdowns 1942-01-20 and 1942-01-28
1942-11-09 France United States D
1943-01-20 Chile Germany,Japan,Italy D
1943-09-09 Iran Germany WD Diplomatic breakdown in 1941
1943-10-13 Italy Germany WD After the fall of Mussolini, Italy changed side
1944-01-10 Argentina Germany,Japan D
1944-06-30 United States Finland D
1944-08-04 Turkey Germany D Turkey never got involved in the war, but a state of war against Germany existed from this date.
1944-08-23 Romania Germany WD Like Italy, Romania also changed side.
1944-09-05 Soviet Union Bulgaria WD
1944-09-07 Bulgaria Germany D
1945-02-24 Egypt Germany*,Japan WD

  • Diplomatic breakdown already 1939

|-

1945-04-03 Finland Germany WD Diplomatic breakdown in 1944, last outbreak in Europe.
1945-07-06 Brazil Japan WD
1945-07-17 Italy Japan WD
1945-08-08 Soviet Union Japan WD Last outbreak of war during the Second World War.
Main source: Swedish encyklopedia “Bonniers Lexikon” 15 volumes from the 1960s, article “Andra Världskriget” (“The Second World War”), volume 1 of 15, table in columns 461-462. (Each page are in two columns, numbering of columns only)

See also

;Documentaries

Notes

Citations

References

  • |first=

    |year=1992|title=The Making of the Second World War|isbn=0-415-90716-0|publisher=Routledge|location=New York|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2004|title=Implementing Intnl Humanitaria: From the AD Hoc Tribunals to a Permanent International Criminal Court|location=London and New York, NY|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0-7146-5584-0|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1975|title=The 1941 De Facto Embargo on Oil to Japan: A Bureaucratic Reflex|journal=The Pacific Historical Review|volume=44|issue=2|jstor=3638003|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Anne Applebaum|year=2003|title=Gulag: A History of the Soviet Camps|location=London|publisher=Allen Lane|isbn=978-0-7139-9322-6|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1992|title=Glasnost' and the Gulag: New Information on Soviet Forced Labour around World War II|journal=Soviet Studies|volume=44|issue=6|pages=1069–1086|jstor=152330|doi=10.1080/09668139208412066|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1990|title=Normandy 1944: Allied Landings and Breakout|location=Oxford|publisher=Osprey Publishing|isbn=978-0-85045-921-0|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1964|title=Germany Under Direct Controls: Economic Aspects of Industrial Disarmament 1945–1948|location=New Brunswick, NJ|publisher=Rutgers University Press|isbn=978-0-8135-0449-0|ref=harv}}

  • |first1=

    |last2=

    |first2=

    |year=2006|chapter=Patriotic War, 1941–1945|title=In Ronald Grigor Suny, ed., The Cambridge History of Russia, Volume III: The Twentieth Century (pp.&nbsp;217–242)|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0-521-81144-6|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1971|title=The Rape of Ethiopia 1936|location=New York,&nbsp;NY|publisher=Ballantine Books|isbn=978-0-345-02462-6|ref=harv}}

  • |first1=

    |last2=

    |first2=

    |year=2001|title=China in the Anti-Japanese War, 1937–1945: Politics, Culture and Society|location=New York,&nbsp;NY|publisher=Peter Lang|isbn=978-0-8204-4556-4|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Antony Beevor|year=1998|title=Stalingrad|location=New York,&nbsp;NY|publisher=Viking|isbn=978-0-670-87095-0|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2010|title=War, Massacre, and Recovery in Central Italy: 1943–1948|location=Toronto|publisher=University of Toronto Press|isbn=978-0-8020-9314-1|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2007|title=Absolute War: Soviet Russia in the Second World War|location=New York, NY|publisher=Alfred A. Knopf|isbn=978-0-375-41086-4|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1943|title=The Middle East: Crossroads of History|location=New York,&nbsp;NY|publisher=W. W. Norton & Company|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Iván T. Berend|year=1996|title=Central and Eastern Europe, 1944–1993: Detour from the Periphery to the Periphery|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0-521-55066-6|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Gail Lee Bernstein|year=1991|title=Recreating Japanese Women, 1600–1945|location=Berkeley & Los Angeles, CA|publisher=University of California Press|isbn=978-0-520-07017-2|ref=harv}}

  • |first1=

    |last2=

    |first2=

    |year=2007|title=Currents in American History: A Brief History of the United States|location=Armonk, NY|publisher=M. E. Sharpe|isbn=978-0-7656-1821-4|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1999|title=Endgame in NATO's Enlargement: The Baltic States and Ukraine|location=Westport, CT|publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group|isbn=978-0-275-96363-7|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Herbert P. Bix|year=2000|title=Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan|location=New York, NY|publisher=HarperCollins|isbn=978-0-06-019314-0|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Jeremy Black (historian)|year=2003|title=World War Two: A Military History|location= Abingdon and New York, NY|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0-415-30534-1|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2006|origyear=1984|title=Mussolini and Fascist Italy|edition=3rd|location=Abingdon and New York, NY|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0-415-26206-4|ref=harv}}

  • |first1=

    |last2=

    |first2=

    |year=2001|title=Warship Boneyards|location=Osceola, WI|publisher=MBI Publishing Company|isbn=978-0-7603-0870-7|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2005|chapter=The United States, the Cold War, and the color line|title=In Melvyn P. Leffler and David S. Painter,&nbsp;eds., Origins of the Cold War: An International History (pp.&nbsp;317–332)|edition=2nd|location=Abingdon & New York,&nbsp;NY|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0-415-34109-7|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2002|title=The British Army 1939–45, Volume 3: The Far East|location=Oxford|publisher=Osprey Publishing|isbn=978-1-84176-238-8|ref=harv}}

  • |year=1998|title=The Strategic Air War Against Germany, 1939–1945|location=London and Portland, OR|publisher=Frank Cass Publishers|isbn=978-0-7146-4722-7|ref=CITEREFBBSU1998}}

  • |first=

    |year=1999|title=The Avoidable War: Pierre Laval and the Politics of Reality, 1935–1936|location=New Brunswick,&nbsp;NJ|publisher=Transaction Publishers|isbn=978-0-7658-0622-2|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2004|title=The Road to Oran: Anglo-French Naval Relations, September 1939 – July 1940|location=London & New York,&nbsp;NY|publisher=Frank Cass|isbn=978-0-7146-5461-4|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2006|title=Europe's Troubled Peace, 1945–2000|location=Oxford & Malden, MA|publisher=Blackwell Publishing|isbn=978-0-631-22162-3|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Stephen Budiansky|year=2001|title=Battle of Wits: The Complete Story of Codebreaking in World War II|location=London|publisher=Penguin Books|isbn=978-0-14-028105-7|ref=harv}}

  • |first1=

    |author1-link=Bruce Bueno de Mesquita|last2=

    |first2=

    |last3=

    |first3=

    |last4=

    |first4=

    |author4-link=James D. Morrow|year=2003|title=The Logic of Political Survival|location=Cambridge,&nbsp;MA|publisher=MIT Press|isbn=978-0-262-02546-1|ref=harv}}

  • |first1=

    |last2=

    |first2=

    |year=2005|title=Italian Politics: Adjustment Under Duress|location=|publisher=Polity|isbn=978-0-7456-1298-0|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Alan Bullock|year=1990|title=Hitler: A Study in Tyranny|location=London|publisher=Penguin Books|isbn=978-0-14-013564-0|ref=harv}}

  • |first1=

    |last2=

    |first2=

    |year=1995|title=Concepts in Submarine Design|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0-521-55926-3|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2002|title=Communism in History and Theory: Asia, Africa, and the Americas|location=Westport, CT|publisher=Praeger Publishers|isbn=0-275-97733-1|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Luciano Canfora|year=2006|origyear=2004|title=Democracy in Europe: A History|location=Oxford & Malden&nbsp;MA|publisher=Blackwell Publishing|isbn=978-1-4051-1131-7|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1940|title=America Faces the War: A Study in Public Opinion|journal=Public Opinion Quarterly|volume=4|issue=3|pages=387–407|jstor=2745078|doi=10.1086/265420|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1996|title=Zhukov|edition=Revised|location=Norman,&nbsp;OK|publisher=University of Oklahoma Press|isbn=978-0-8061-2807-8|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Iris Chang|year=1997|title=The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II|location=New York, NY|publisher=Basic Books|isbn=978-0-465-06835-7|ref=harv}}

  • |first1=

    |last2=

    |first2=

    |year=2006|title=France During World War II: From Defeat to Liberation|location=New York, NY|publisher=Fordham University Press|isbn=978-0-8232-2562-0|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2001|title=Russia's Bitter Path to Modernity: A History of the Soviet and Post-Soviet Eras|location=London & New York,&nbsp;NY|publisher=Continuum|isbn=978-0-8264-1350-5|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1992|chapter=The Military Dimension, 1942–1945|title=In James&nbsp;C. Hsiung and Steven&nbsp;I. Levine, eds., China's Bitter Victory: War with Japan, 1937–45 (pp.&nbsp;157–184)|location=Armonk, NY|publisher=M. E. Sharpe|isbn=978-1-56324-246-5|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2010|title=Another look at the Poles and Poland during World War II|journal=The Polish Review|volume=55|issue=1|pages=123–143|jstor=25779864|ref= harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Richard Clogg|year=2002|title=A Concise History of Greece|edition=2nd|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0-521-80872-9|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2003|title=Chinese Capitalists in Japan's New Order: The Occupied Lower Yangzi, 1937–1945|location=Berkeley & Los Angeles, CA|publisher=University of California Press|isbn=978-0-520-23268-6|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2003|title=The Second World War (4): The Mediterranean 1940–1945|location=Oxford|publisher=Osprey Publishing|isbn=978-1-84176-539-6|ref=harv}}

  • |first1=

    |last2=

    |first2=

    |year=2000|title=Germany 1919–45|location=Oxford|publisher=Heinemann|isbn=978-0-435-32721-7|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2004|title=The Story of the Second World War|publisher=Brassey's|isbn=978-1-57488-741-9|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1993|title=The Volunteer Armies of Northeast China|url=http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=5000186948|journal=History Today|volume=43|accessdate=6 May 2012|ref=harv}}

  • |first1=

    |last2=

    |first2=

    |year=1997|title=What Happened Where: A Guide to Places and Events in Twentieth-Century History|location=London|publisher=UCL Press|isbn=978-1-85728-532-1|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1990|title=Nomonhan: Japan Against Russia, 1939|location=Palo Alto,&nbsp;CA|publisher=Stanford University Press|isbn=978-0-8047-1160-9|ref=harv}}

  • |editor1-first=

    |editor1-link=Robert Cowley|editor2-last=

    |editor2-first=

    |editor2-link=Geoffrey Parker (historian)|year=2001|title=Readers Companion Military History|location=Boston, MA|publisher=Houghton Mifflin Company|isbn=978-0-618-12742-9|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2007|title=After Tamerlane: The Rise & Fall of Global Empires 1400–2000|location=London|publisher=Penguin Books|isbn=978-0-14-101022-9|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |title=The Death and Life of Germany: An Account of the American Occupation|year=1999|publisher=University of Missouri Press|isbn=0-8262-1249-2|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Norman Davies|year=2008|title=No Simple Victory: World War II in Europe, 1939–1945|location=London|publisher=Penguin Books|isbn=978-0-14-311409-3|ref=harv}}

  • |first1=

    |last2=

    |first2=

    |year=2012|title=Hidden agendas and hidden illness|journal=Diversity and Equality in Health and Care|volume=9|issue=4|pages=297–298|ref=harv}}

  • |editor1-first=

    |editor1-link=I. C. B. Dear|editor2-last=

    |editor2-first=

    |editor2-link=M. R. D. Foot|year=2001|origyear=1995|title=The Oxford Companion to World War II|location=Oxford|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-860446-4|ref=harv}}

  • |first1=

    |author1-link=J. Bradford DeLong|last2=

    |first2=

    |author2-link=Barry Eichengreen|year=1993|chapter=The Marshall Plan: History's Most Successful Structural Adjustment Program|title=In Rudiger Dornbusch, Wilhelm Nölling and Richard Layard, eds., Postwar Economic Reconstruction and Lessons for the East Today (pp.&nbsp;189–230)|location=Cambridge, MA|publisher=MIT Press|isbn=978-0-262-04136-2|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2012|title=Orderly and Humane: The Expulsion of the Germans After the Second World War|location=New Haven,&nbsp;CT|publisher=Yale University Press|isbn=978-0-300-16660-6|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=John W. Dower|year=1986|title=War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War|location=New York,&nbsp;NY|publisher=Pantheon Books|isbn=978-0-394-50030-0|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2003|title=In the Service of the Emperor: Essays on the Imperial Japanese Army|location=Lincoln,&nbsp;NE|publisher=University of Nebraska Press|isbn=978-0-8032-6638-4|ref=harv}}

  • |first1=

    |last2=

    |first2=

    |year=1991|title=Story of an Ordinary Massacre: Civitella della Chiana, 29 June, 1944|journal=Cardozo Studies in Law and Literature, Vol. 3, No. 2 (Autumn, 1991)|pages=153–169|jstor=743479|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1998|title=Caught Between Roosevelt & Stalin: America's Ambassadors to Moscow|location=Lexington,&nbsp;KY|publisher=University Press of Kentucky|isbn=978-0-8131-2023-2|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1986|chapter=Nationalist China during the Sino-Japanese War 1937–1945|title=In K. Fairbank and Denis Twitchett,&nbsp;eds.,

    |location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0-521-24338-4|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Michael Ellman|year=2002|title=Soviet Repression Statistics: Some Comments|url=http://artukraine.com/old/famineart/SovietCrimes.pdf|journal=Europe-Asia Studies|volume=54|issue=7|pages=1151–1172|jstor=826310|doi=10.1080/0966813022000017177|ref=harv}} Copy

  • |year=1994|title=Soviet Deaths in the Great Patriotic War: A Note|url=http://sovietinfo.tripod.com/ELM-War_Deaths.pdf|journal=Europe-Asia Studies|volume=46|issue=4|pages=671–680|jstor=152934|doi=10.1080/09668139408412190|ref=CITEREFEllmanMaksudov1994}}

  • |first=

    |year=2002|title=Rethinking International Organization: Deregulation and Global Governance|location=London and New York, NY|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0-415-19540-9|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=John Erickson (historian)|year=2001|chapter=Moskalenko|title=In Harold Shukman,&nbsp;ed., Stalin's Generals (pp.&nbsp;137–154)|location=London|publisher=Phoenix Press|isbn=978-1-84212-513-7|ref=harv}}

  • |first1=

    |last2=

    |first2=

    R.|year=2012|origyear=1997|title=Kaigun: Strategy, Tactics, and Technology in the Imperial Japanese Navy|location=Annapolis, MD|publisher=Naval Institute Press|isbn=978-1-59114-244-7|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Richard J. Evans|year=2008|title=The Third Reich at War|location=London|publisher=Allen Lane|isbn=978-0-7139-9742-2|ref=harv}}

  • |first1=

    |author1-link=John K. Fairbank|last2=

    |first2=

    |author2-link=Merle Goldman|year=2006|origyear=1994|title=China: A New History|edition=2nd|location=Cambridge,&nbsp;MA|publisher=Harvard University Press|isbn=978-0-674-01828-0|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1993|title=Yes, Prime Minister: Barbarossa, Whipcord, and the Basis of British Grand Strategy, Autumn 1941|journal=Journal of Military History|volume=57|issue=4|pages=599–625|jstor=2944096|doi=10.2307/2944096|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Niall Ferguson|year=2006|title=The War of the World: Twentieth-Century Conflict and the Descent of the West|publisher=Penguin|isbn=978-0-14-311239-6|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2008|title=Reviews: Taken by Force: Rape and American GIs in Europe during WWII by J.&nbsp;Robert Lilly|journal=Contemporary Sociology|volume=37|issue=6|pages=585–586|jstor=20444365|doi=10.1177/009430610803700640|ref=harv}}

  • |first1=

    |last2=

    |first2=

    |year=2005|chapter=The Ultimate Horror: Reflections on Total War and Genocide|title=In Roger Chickering, Stig Förster and Bernd Greiner,&nbsp;eds., A World at Total War: Global Conflict and the Politics of Destruction, 1937–1945 (pp.&nbsp;53–68)|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0-521-83432-2|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2002|title=Adenauer's Germany and the Nazi Past: The Politics of Amnesty and Integration|location=New York,&nbsp;NY|publisher=Columbia University Press|isbn=978-0-231-11882-8|ref=harv}}

  • |editor1-first=

    |editor2-last=

    |editor2-first=

    |year=2004|title=The Eclipse of the Big Gun: The Warship 1906–1945|location=London|publisher=Conway Maritime Press|isbn=978-0-85177-953-9|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Raymond L. Garthoff|year=1969|title=The Soviet Manchurian Campaign, August 1945|journal=Military Affairs|volume=33|issue=2|pages=312–336|jstor=1983926|doi=10.2307/1983926|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1988|title=Chinese-Soviet Relations, 1937–1945: The Diplomacy of Chinese Nationalism|location=New York,&nbsp;NY|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-505432-3|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=David Glantz|year=1986|title=Soviet Defensive Tactics at Kursk, July 1943|url=//web.archive.org/web/20080306082607/http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/glantz2/glantz2.asp|series=CSI Report No. 11|publisher=Combined Arms Research Library|oclc=278029256|accessdate=15 July 2013|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2004|title=World War II: Europe|location=Minneapolis|publisher=Lerner Publications|isbn=978-0-8225-0139-8|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Andrew Gordon (naval historian)|year=2004|chapter=The greatest military armada ever launched|title=In Jane Penrose, ed., The D-Day Companion (pp.&nbsp;127–144)|location=Oxford|publisher=Osprey Publishing|isbn=978-1-84176-779-6|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2012|title=The Holocaust in Italian Culture, 1944–2010|location=Stanford, CA|publisher=Stanford University Press|isbn=978-0-8047-6346-2|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2005|title=The Spanish Civil War: A Very Short Introduction|location=Oxford & New York,&nbsp;NY|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=0-19-280377-8|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1995|chapter=A Service Vindicated, 1939–1946|title=In J. R. Hill, ed., The Oxford Illustrated History of the Royal Navy (pp.&nbsp;348–380)|location=Oxford|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-211675-8|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2001|title=Modern Japan: A Historical Survey|edition=3rd|location=Boulder, CO|publisher=Westview Press|isbn=978-0-8133-3756-2|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1997|title=Containing Coexistence: America, Russia, and the “Finnish Solution”|location=Kent,&nbsp;OH|publisher=Kent State University Press|isbn=978-0-87338-558-9|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Sheldon H. Harris|year=2002|title=Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare, 1932–1945, and the American Cover-up|edition=2nd|location=London and New York, NY|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0-415-93214-1|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1998|chapter=The economics of World War II: an overview|title=In Mark Harrison, ed., The Economics of World War II: Six Great Powers in International Comparison (pp.&nbsp;1–42)|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0-521-62046-8|ref=harv}}

  • |first1=

    |last2=

    |first2=

    |last3=

    |first3=

    |year=2000|title=The German Soldier in World War II|location=Osceola, WI|publisher=MBI Publishing Company|isbn=978-1-86227-073-2|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2003|title=Heartland Heroes: Remembering World War II|location=Columbia, MO|publisher=University of Missouri Press|isbn=978-0-8262-1460-7|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1978|title=Did Hitler Want a World Dominion?|journal=Journal of Contemporary History|volume=13|issue=1|pages=15–32|jstor=260090|doi=10.1177/002200947801300102|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1992|title=Kursk 1943: The Tide Turns in the East|location=Oxford|publisher=Osprey Publishing|isbn=978-1-85532-211-0|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2007|title=Carriers in Combat: The Air War at Sea|location=Mechanicsburg, PA|publisher=Stackpole Books|isbn=978-0-8117-3398-4|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2005|title=Poland in World War II: An Illustrated Military History|location=New York,&nbsp;NY|publisher=Hippocrene Books|isbn=978-0-7818-1004-3|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Ulrich Herbert|year=1994|chapter=Labor as spoils of conquest, 1933–1945|title=In David F. Crew, ed., Nazism and German Society, 1933–1945 (pp.&nbsp;219–273)|location=London and New York, NY|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0-415-08239-6|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Jeffrey Herf|year=2003|title=The Nazi Extermination Camps and the Ally to the East. Could the Red Army and Air Force Have Stopped or Slowed the Final Solution?|journal=Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History|volume=4|issue=4|pages=913–930|doi=10.1353/kri.2003.0059|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |title=The War Behind The Eastern Front: The Soviet Partisan Movement In North-West Russia 1941–1944|location=London & New York, NY|publisher=Frank Cass|year=2005|isbn=978-0-7146-5711-0|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2008|title=Italy's Sorrow: A Year of War 1944–45|location=London|publisher=HarperPress|isbn=978-0-00-717645-8|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2006|title=Rulers and Victims: The Russians in the Soviet Union|location=Cambridge, MA|publisher=Harvard University Press|isbn=978-0-674-02178-5|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2004|title=Workers at War: Labor in China's Arsenals, 1937–1953|location=Stanford, CA|publisher=Stanford University Press|isbn=978-0-8047-4896-4|ref=harv}}

  • |first1=

    |last2=

    |first2=

    |year=1971|title=History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) 2nd Ed.|id = ASIN B00005W210|publisher=Chung Wu Publishers|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2006|chapter=Pacifism|title=In Lawrence&nbsp;D. Kritzman and Brian&nbsp;J. Reilly,&nbsp;eds., The Columbia History Of Twentieth-Century French Thought (pp.&nbsp;76–78)|location=New York,&nbsp;NY|publisher=Columbia University Press|isbn=978-0-231-10791-4|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Akira Iriye|year=1981|title=Power and Culture: The Japanese-American War, 1941–1945|location=Cambridge,&nbsp;MA|publisher=Harvard University Press|isbn=978-0-674-69580-1|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2006|authorlink=Ashley Jackson (historian)|title=The British Empire and the Second World War|location=London & New York,&nbsp;NY|publisher=Hambledon Continuum|isbn=978-1-85285-417-1|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2004|title=Resisting Rebellion: The History And Politics of Counterinsurgency|location=Lexington,&nbsp;KE|publisher=University Press of Kentucky|isbn=978-0-8131-2339-4|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2001|title=The Italian Army 1940–45, Volume&nbsp;2: Africa 1940–43|location=Oxford|publisher=Osprey Publishing|isbn=978-1-85532-865-5|ref=harv}}

  • |first2=

    |year=2002|title=The Japanese Army, 1931–45|location=Oxford|publisher=Osprey Publishing|isbn=978-1-84176-353-8|ref=CITEREFJowettAndrew2002}}

  • |first1=

    |author1-link=Tony Judt|last2=

    |first2=

    |author2-link=Timothy D. Snyder|year=2012|title=Thinking the Twentieth Century: Intellectuals and Politics in the Twentieth Century|location=London|publisher=William Heinemann|isbn=978-0-434-01742-3|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2001|chapter=Kuznetzov|title=In Harold Shukman,&nbsp;ed., Stalin's Generals (pp.&nbsp;109–116)|location=London|publisher=Phoenix Press|isbn=978-1-84212-513-7|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1999|title=The Rage of Nations|location=Grand Rapids,&nbsp;MI|publisher=William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company|isbn=978-0-8028-4455-2|ref=harv}}

  • }}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Curtis Keeble|year=1990|chapter=The historical perspective|title=In Alex Pravda and Peter J. Duncan,&nbsp;eds., Soviet-British Relations Since the 1970s|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0-521-37494-1|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=John Keegan|year=1997|title=The Second World War|location=London|publisher=Pimlico|isbn=978-0-7126-7348-8|ref=harv}}

  • |first1=

    |last2=

    |first2=

    |last3=

    |first3=

    |year=1998|title=Twentieth Century World|location=London|publisher=Heinemann|isbn=978-0-435-30983-1|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=David M. Kennedy (historian)|year=2001|title=Freedom from Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929–1945|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-514403-1|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1995|title=Stalin's Cold War: Soviet Strategies in Europe, 1943–56|location=Manchester|publisher=Manchester University Press|isbn=978-0-7190-4201-0|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Ian Kershaw|year=2001|title=Hitler, 1936–1945: Nemesis|location=New York,&nbsp;NY|publisher=W. W. Norton & Company|isbn=978-0-393-04994-7|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2001|title=Germany 1858–1990: Hope, Terror, and Revival|location=Oxford|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-913417-5|ref=harv}}

  • |first1=

    |last2=

    |first2=

    |last3=

    |first3=

    |year=1997|title=Understanding Competitive Interactions: The U.S. Commercial Aircraft Market|journal=Journal of Managerial Issues|volume=9|issue=1|pages=13–361|jstor=40604127|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1983|title=Hitler's Strike for Tikhvin|journal=Military Affairs|volume=47|issue=3|pages=122–128|jstor=1988082|doi=10.2307/1988082|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1983|title=Hitler's 'Programme' and the Genesis of Operation 'Barbarossa'|journal=The Historical Journal|volume=26|issue=4|pages=891–920|jstor=2639289|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Gabriel Kolko|year=1990|origyear=1968|title=The Politics of War: The World and United States Foreign Policy, 1943–1945|location=New York,&nbsp;NY|publisher=Random House|isbn=978-0-679-72757-6|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2001|title=Tobruk 1941: Rommel's Opening Move|location=Oxford|publisher=Osprey Publishing|isbn=978-1-84176-092-6|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2002|chapter=The Nanking Massacre Reassessed: A Study of the Sino-Japanese Controversy over the Factual Number of Massacred Victims|title=In Robert Sabella, Fei Fei Li and David Liu, eds., Nanking 1937: Memory and Healing (pp.&nbsp;47–74)|location=Armonk, NY|publisher=M. E. Sharpe|isbn=978-0-7656-0816-1|ref=harv}}

  • |editor1-first=

    |editor1-link=Melvyn P. Leffler|editor2-last=

    |editor2-first=

    |editor2-link=Odd Arne Westad|year=2010|title=The Cambridge History of the Cold War (3 volumes)|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0-521-83938-9|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1992|title=The Strategic Bombing of Germany, 1940–1945|location=Westport, CT|publisher=Praeger|isbn=978-0-275-94319-6|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1953|chapter=Japanese Plans and American Defenses|chapterurl=http://www.history.army.mil/books/wwii/5-2/5-2_29.htm|title=In Kent Roberts Greenfield, ed., The Fall of the Philippines|location=Washington, DC|publisher=US Government Printing Office|id=Library of Congress Catalogue Card Number: 53-63678|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1996|title=Does Conquest Pay?: The Exploitation of Occupied Industrial Societies|location=Princeton, NJ|publisher=Princeton University Pressisbn=978-0-691-02986-3|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2004|title=The Second World War: Ambitions to Nemesis|location=London & New York, NY|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0-415-22404-8|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2007|title=Taken by Force: Rape and American GIs in Europe during World War II|location=New York,&nbsp;NY|publisher=Palgrave Macmillan|isbn=978-0-230-50647-3|ref=harv}}

  • |first1=

    |last2=

    |first2=

    |year=2001|title=Brown-, Green- and Blue-Water Fleets: the Influence of Geography on Naval Warfare, 1861 to the Present|location=Westport, CT|publisher=Praeger|isbn=978-0-275-96486-3|ref=harv}}

  • |first1=

    |last2=

    |first2=

    |year=2002|title=Italian Foreign Policy 1870–1940|location=London|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0-415-26681-9|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2010|title=The Chinese Civil War 1945–49|location=Oxford|publisher=Osprey Publishing|isbn=978-1-84176-671-3|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Kenneth Macksey|year=1997|origyear=1979|title=Rommel: Battles and Campaigns|location=Cambridge,&nbsp;MA|publisher=Da Capo Press|isbn=978-0-306-80786-2|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1992|title=The United States and World War II|location=Boulder, CO|publisher=Westview Press|isbn=978-0-8133-0437-3|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1994|title=The United States and the Caribbean: Challenges of an Asymmetrical Relationship|location=Boulder,&nbsp;CO|publisher=Westview Press|isbn=978-0-8133-2241-4|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1988|title=The Fate of Nations: The Search for National Security in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries|publisher=Cambridge University Press|page=96|isbn=0-521-35790-X|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2005|title=The Pacific War Companion: From Pearl Harbor to Hiroshima|location=Oxford|publisher=Osprey Publishing|isbn=978-1-84176-882-3|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1990|title=Japanese Relations with Vietnam, 1951–1987|location=Ithaca,&nbsp;NY|publisher=SEAP Publications|isbn=978-0-87727-122-2|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Ernest May (historian)|year=1955|title=The United States, the Soviet Union, and the Far Eastern War, 1941–1945|journal=Pacific Historical Review|volume=24|issue=2|pages=153–174|jstor=3634575|doi=10.2307/3634575|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Mark Mazower|year=2008|title=Hitler's Empire: Nazi Rule in Occupied Europe|location=London|publisher=Allen Lane|isbn=978-1-59420-188-2|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Marc Milner|year=1990|chapter=The Battle of the Atlantic|title=In John Gooch, ed., Decisive Campaigns of the Second World War (pp.&nbsp;45–66)|location=Abingdon|publisher=Frank Cass|isbn=978-0-7146-3369-5|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1964|title=The End of the Blitzkrieg|journal=The Economic History Review|volume=16|issue=3|pages=499–518|jstor=2592851|doi=10.2307/2592851|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Patrick Minford|year=1993|chapter=Reconstruction and the U.K. Postwar Welfare State: False Start and New Beginning|title=In Rudiger Dornbusch, Wilhelm Nölling and Richard Layard, eds., Postwar Economic Reconstruction and Lessons for the East Today (pp.&nbsp;115–138)|location=Cambridge, MA|publisher=MIT Press|isbn=978-0-262-04136-2|ref=harv}}

  • |first1=

    |last2=

    |first2=

    |year=2007|title=United Nations in the Twenty-First Century|edition=3rd|location=Boulder, CO|publisher=Westview Press|isbn=978-0-8133-4346-4|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2007|title=From Roosevelt to Truman: Potsdam, Hiroshima, and the Cold War|location=New York,&nbsp;NY|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0-521-86244-8|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2007|origyear=1982|title=Rommel's Desert War: The Life and Death of the Afrika Korps|location=Mechanicsburg, PA|publisher=Stackpole Books|isbn=978-0-8117-3413-4|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2007|title=Desert Raiders: Axis and Allied Special Forces 1940–43|location=Oxford|publisher=Osprey Publishing|isbn=978-1-84603-006-2|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2002|chapter=History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, Volume&nbsp;14: Victory in the Pacific, 1945|location=Champaign,&nbsp;IL|publisher=University of Illinois Press|isbn=978-0-252-07065-5|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Williamson Murray|year=1983|title=Strategy for Defeat: The Luftwaffe, 1933–1945|url=http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/AAF/AAF-Luftwaffe/|location=Maxwell Air Force Base, AL|publisher=Air University Press|isbn=978-1-4294-9235-5|ref=harv}}

  • |first2=

    |year=2001|title=A War to Be Won: Fighting the Second World War|location=Cambridge,&nbsp;MA|publisher=Harvard University Press|isbn=978-0-674-00680-5|ref=CITEREFMurrayMillett2001}}

  • |first1=

    |last2=

    |first2=

    |year=1987|title=The Japanese Colonial Empire, 1895–1945|location=Princeton,&nbsp;NJ|publisher=Princeton University Press|isbn=978-0-691-10222-1|ref=harv}}

  • |first1=

    |authorlink=Norman Naimark|year=2010|chapter=The Sovietization of Eastern Europe, 1944–1953|title=In P. Leffler and Odd Arne Westad,&nbsp;eds., The Cambridge History of the Cold War, Volume&nbsp;I: Origins (pp.&nbsp;175–197)|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn= 978-0-521-83719-4|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1992|chapter=Japan|title=In Martin Harrop, ed., Power and Policy in Liberal Democracies (pp.&nbsp;49–70)|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0-521-34579-8|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Robin Neillands|year=2005|title=The Dieppe Raid: The Story of the Disastrous 1942 Expedition|location=Bloomington, IN|publisher=Indiana University Press|isbn=978-0-253-34781-7|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2004|title=Retreat from Leningrad: Army Group North, 1944/1945|location=Atglen, PA|publisher=Schiffer Books|isbn=978-0-88740-806-9|ref=harv}}

  • |first1=

    |last2=

    |first2=

    |year=2000|title=The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust|location=New York, NY|publisher=Columbia University Press|isbn=978-0-231-11200-0|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Richard Overy|year=1994|title=War and Economy in the Third Reich|location=New York, NY|publisher=Clarendon Press|isbn=978-0-19-820290-5|ref=harv}}

  • |first2=

    |year=1999|title=The Road to War|edition=2nd|location=London|publisher=Penguin Books|isbn=978-0-14-028530-7|ref=CITEREFOveryWheatcroft1999}}

  • |first=

    |year=2001|title=Forgotten Battles: Italy's War of Liberation, 1943–1945|location=Lanham,&nbsp;MD|publisher=Lexington Books|isbn=978-0-7391-0195-7|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=David S. Painter|year=2012|title=Oil and the American Century|url=http://jah.oxfordjournals.org/content/99/1/24.full.pdf|journal=The Journal of American History|volume=99|issue=1|pages=24–39|doi= 10.1093/jahist/jas073|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1998|title=War Beneath the Sea: Submarine Conflict During World War II|location=New York, NY|publisher=John Wiley|isbn=978-0-471-24945-0|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Robert Pape|year=1993|title=Why Japan Surrendered|journal=International Security|volume=18|issue=2|pages=154–201|jstor=2539100|doi=10.2307/2539100|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2004|title=Battle of the Bulge: Hitler's Ardennes Offensive, 1944–1945|edition=New|location=Cambridge, MA|publisher=Da Capo Press|isbn=978-0-306-81391-7|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Stanley G. Payne|year=2008|title=Franco and Hitler: Spain, Germany, and World War II|location=New Haven, CT|publisher=Yale University Press|isbn=978-0-300-12282-4|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1998|title=The History of Japan|location=Westport,&nbsp;CT|publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group|isbn=978-0-313-30296-1|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1967|title=Money and Conquest: Allied Occupation Currencies in World War II|location=Baltimore, MD|publisher=Johns Hopkins University Press|isbn=978-0-8018-0530-1|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2000|title=An A–Z of Modern Europe Since 1789|location=London and New York, NY|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0-415-18597-4|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Alessandro Portelli|year=2003|title=The Order Has Been Carried Out: History, Memory, and Meaning of a Nazi Massacre in Rome|location=Basingstoke & New York, NYPalgrave Macmillan978-1403980083|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1998|title=Pacific Asia in the Global System: An Introduction|location=Oxford&nbsp;& Malden,&nbsp;MA|publisher=Blackwell Publishers|isbn=978-0-631-20238-7|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2002|title=The Heart of War: On Power, Conflict and Obligation in the Twenty-First Century|location=London & New York,&nbsp;NY|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0-415-36960-2|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1997|chapter='Strategic' concepts underlying the so-called Hirota foreign policy, 1933–7|title=In Aiko Ikeo, ed., Economic Development in Twentieth Century East Asia: The International Context (pp.&nbsp;100–120)|location=London and New York, NY|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0-415-14900-6|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Werner Rahn|year=2001|chapter=The War in the Pacific|title=In Horst Boog, Werner Rahn, Reinhard Stumpf and Bernd Wegner, eds., Germany and the Second World War, Volume VI: The Global War (pp.&nbsp;191–298)|location=Oxford|publisher=Clarendon Press|isbn=978-0-19-822888-2|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2006|title=Delusions of Intelligence: Enigma, Ultra, and the End of Secure Ciphers|location=New York, NY|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0-521-85522-8|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2004|title=The Devil's Disciples: Hitler's Inner Circle|location=New York, NY|publisher=W. W. Norton & Company|isbn=978-0-393-04800-1|ref=harv}}

  • |first1=

    |last2=

    |first2=

    |year=2002|origyear=1992|title=The Fall Of Berlin|location=London|publisher=Pimlico|isbn=978-0-7126-0695-0|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2005|title=Appeasement Reconsidered: Investigating the Mythology of the 1930s|publisher=DIANE Publishing|page=50|isbn=1-58487-216-0|url=http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/PUB622.pdf|format=PDF|accessdate=15 November 2009|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Laurence Rees|year=2008|title=World War II Behind Closed Doors: Stalin, the Nazis and the West|location=London|publisher=BBC Books|isbn=978-0-563-49335-8|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2004|title=The Brassey's Book of Military Blunders|publisher=Brassey's|isbn=978-1-57488-252-0|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Klaus Reinhardt|year=1992|title=Moscow – The Turning Point: The Failure of Hitler's Strategy in the Winter of 1941–42|location=Oxford|publisher=Berg|isbn=978-0-85496-695-0|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2006|authorlink=David Reynolds (English historian)|title=From World War to Cold War: Churchill, Roosevelt, and the International History of the 1940s|location=|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-928411-5|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1992|origyear=1973|title=Hitler's War Aims, Volume I: Ideology, the Nazi State, and the Course of Expansion|location=New York, NY|publisher=W. W. Norton & Company|isbn=978-0-393-00802-9|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1992|chapter=France|title=In Martin Harrop, ed., Power and Policy in Liberal Democracies (pp.&nbsp;23–48)|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0-521-34579-8|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1995|title=Planning for War: The Red Army and the Catastrophe of 1941|journal=Europe-Asia Studies|volume=47|issue=8|pages=1293–1326|jstor=153299|doi=10.1080/09668139508412322|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Geoffrey Roberts|year=2006|title=Stalin's Wars: From World War to Cold War, 1939–1953|location=New Haven,&nbsp;CT|publisher=Yale University Press|isbn=978-0-300-11204-7|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=John Roberts (historian)|year=1997|title=The Penguin History of Europe|location=London|publisher=Penguin Books|isbn=978-0-14-026561-3|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Theodore Ropp|year=2000|title=War in the Modern World|edition=Revised|location=Baltimore, MD|publisher=Johns Hopkins University Press|isbn=978-0-8018-6445-2|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1954|title=The War at Sea 1939–1945, Volume 1: The Defensive|url=http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/UN/UK/UK-RN-I/index.html|series=History of the Second World War. United Kingdom Military Series|location=London|publisher=HMSO|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1997|title=American War Plans, 1941–1945: The Test of Battle|location=Abingdon and New York, NY|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0-7146-4634-3|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2002|title=World War II Pacific Island Guide: A Geo-Military Study|location=Westport, CT|publisher=Greenwood Press|isbn=978-0-313-31395-0|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1986|title=The Creation of Soviet Reserves and the 1941 Campaign|journal=Military Affairs|volume=50|issue=1|pages=21–8|jstor=1988530|doi=10.2307/1988530|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2001|title=Fortress Against the Sun: The B-17 Flying Fortress in the Pacific|location=Conshohocken, PA|publisher=Combined Publishing|isbn=978-1-58097-049-5|ref=harv}}

  • |editor-first=

    |year=2001|title=The Marshall Plan Fifty Years Later|location=London|publisher=Palgrave Macmillan|isbn=978-0-333-92983-4|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2000|title=Henry L. Stimson: The First Wise Man|location=Lanham,&nbsp;MD|publisher=Rowman & Littlefield|isbn=978-0-8420-2632-1|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1981|title=The Defeat of the U-Boats during World War II|journal=Journal of Contemporary History|volume=16|issue=1|pages=119–129|jstor=260619|doi=10.1177/002200948101600107|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Amnon Sella|year=1978|title=“Barbarossa”: Surprise Attack and Communication|journal=Journal of Contemporary History|volume=13|issue=3|pages=555–583|jstor=260209|doi=10.1177/002200947801300308|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Alfred E. Senn|year=2007|title=Lithuania 1940: Revolution from Above|location=Amsterdam & New York,&nbsp;NY|publisher=Rodopi|isbn=978-90-420-2225-6|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2000|title=World War II: Day by Day|location=Osceola,&nbsp;WI|publisher=MBI Publishing Company|isbn=978-0-7603-0939-1|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1998|title=The Fall of Berlin and the Rise of a Myth|journal=Journal of Military History|volume=62|issue=1|pages=135–154|jstor=120398|doi=10.2307/120398|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=William L. Shirer|year=1990|origyear=1960|title=The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany|location=New York,&nbsp;NY|publisher=Simon & Schuster|isbn=0-671-72868-7 |ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2003|title=What Hitler Knew: The Battle for Information in Nazi Foreign Policy|location=New York,&nbsp;NY|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-518261-3|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1956|title=Defeat into Victory|location=London|publisher=Cassell|isbn=0-304-29114-5|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1993|title=Russia and the World Economy: Problems of Integration|location=London|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0-415-08924-1|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=J. W. Smith|year=1994|title=The World's Wasted Wealth 2: Save Our Wealth, Save Our Environment|publisher=Institute for Economic Democracy|isbn=0-9624423-2-1|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2002|origyear=1970|title=Pedestal: The Convoy That Saved Malta|edition=5th|location=Manchester|publisher=Goodall|isbn=978-0-907579-19-9|ref=harv}}

  • |first1=

    |last2=

    |first2=

    |last3=

    |first3=

    |last4=

    |first4=

    |year=2002|title=The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania|location=London|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0-415-28580-3|ref=harv}}

  • |first1=

    |last2=

    |first2=

    |year=2004|title=All Riot on the Western Front, Volume 3|publisher=Last Gasp|isbn=978-0-86719-616-0|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Timothy D. Snyder|year=2010|title=Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin|location=London|publisher=The Bodley Head|isbn=978-0-224-08141-2|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2008|title=The Complete Illustrated History of World War Two: An Authoritative Account of the Deadliest Conflict in Human History with Analysis of Decisive Encounters and Landmark Engagements|location=Leicester|publisher=Lorenz Books|isbn=978-0-7548-1898-4|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1986|title=The Soviet Decision for War against Finland, 30 November 1939|journal=Soviet Studies|volume=38|issue=2|pages=207–226|jstor=151203|doi=10.1080/09668138608411636|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Jonathan Steinberg|year=1995|title=The Third Reich Reflected: German Civil Administration in the Occupied Soviet Union, 1941–4|journal=The English Historical Review|volume=110|pages=620–651|jstor=578338|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1987|title=Naval Intelligence, the Atlantic Campaign and the Sinking of the Bismarck: A Study in the Integration of Intelligence into the Conduct of Naval Warfare|journal=Journal of Contemporary History|volume=22|issue=2|pages=209–233|jstor=260931|doi=10.1177/002200948702200202|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2010|chapter=The Korean War|title=In Melvyn P. Leffler and Odd Arne Westad, eds., The Cambridge History of the Cold War, Volume&nbsp;I: Origins (pp.&nbsp;266–287) |location= Cambridge |publisher= Cambridge University Press |isbn= 978-0-521-83719-4 |ref= harv }}

  • |first1=

    |last2=

    |first2=

    |year=2001|title=The Royal Navy 1939–45|location=Oxford|publisher=Osprey Publishing|isbn=978-1-84176-195-4|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2001|title=A Chronology of Australian Armed Forces at War 1939–45|location=Crows Nest|publisher=Allen & Unwin|isbn=978-1-86508-352-0|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1992|title=The Cominform: Tito's International?|journal=The Historical Journal|volume=35|issue=3|pages=641–663|doi=10.1017/S0018246X00026017|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1996|title=Hidden Horrors: Japanese War Crimes in World War II|location=Boulder, CO|publisher=Westview Press|isbn=978-0-8133-2717-4|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=A. J. P. Taylor|year=1961|title=The Origins of the Second World War|location=London|publisher=Hamish Hamilton|isbn=|ref=harv}}

  • }}

  • |first=

    |year=2009|title=The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-shek and the Struggle for Modern China|location=Cambridge,&nbsp;MA|publisher=Harvard University Press|isbn=978-0-674-03338-2|ref=harv}}

  • |first1=

    |last2=

    |first2=

    |year=1998|title=German Army 1939–1945 (2): North Africa & Balkans|location=Oxford|publisher=Osprey Publishing|isbn=978-1-85532-640-8|ref=harv}}

  • |first1=

    |last2=

    |first2=

    |author2-link=Stephen Randall (political scientist)|year=2008|title=Canada and the United States: Ambivalent Allies|edition=4th|location=Athens, GA|publisher=University of Georgia Press|isbn=978-0-8203-3113-3|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Marc Trachtenberg|year=1999|title=A Constructed Peace: The Making of the European Settlement, 1945–1963|location=Princeton,&nbsp;NJ|publisher=Princeton University Press|isbn=978-0-691-00273-6|ref=harv}}

  • |first1=

    |authorlink1=Spencer C. Tucker|last2=

    |first2=

    |title=Encyclopedia of World War II: A Political, Social, and Military History|year=2004|publisher=ABC-CLIO|isbn=1-57607-999-6|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1991|chapter=The Battle for Hegemony in Western Europe|title=In P.&nbsp;S. Falla,&nbsp;ed., Germany and the Second World War, Volume&nbsp;2: Germany's Initial Conquests in Europe (pp.&nbsp;227–326)|location=Oxford|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-822885-1|ref=harv}}

  • |authorlink=United States Army|year=1986|origyear=1953|title=The German Campaigns in the Balkans (Spring 1941)|url=http://www.history.army.mil/books/wwii/balkan/intro.htm|location=Washington, DC|publisher=Department of the Army|ref=CITEREFUS_Army1986}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Susan Waltz|year=2002|title=Reclaiming and Rebuilding the History of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights|journal=Third World Quarterly|volume=23|issue=3|pages=437–448|jstor=3993535|doi=10.1080/01436590220138378|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2010|title=Aerospace Propulsion Systems|location=Singapore|publisher=John Wiley & Sons|isbn=978-0-470-82497-9|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=William E. Watson|year=2003|title=Tricolor and Crescent: France and the Islamic World|location=Westport,&nbsp;CT|publisher=Praeger|isbn=0-275-97470-7|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2005|title=A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II|edition=2nd|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0-521-85316-3|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2008|title=Stalin and the Cold War in Europe: The Emergence and Development of East-West Conflict, 1939–1953|location=Lanham,&nbsp;MD|publisher=Rowman & Littlefield|isbn=978-0-7425-5542-6|ref=harv}}

  • |first1=

    |last2=

    |first2=

    |year=2002|title=Strategy and Tactics: Infantry Warfare|location=St Paul, MN|publisher=MBI Publishing Company|isbn=978-0-7603-1401-2|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2006|title=Liberalism and War: The Victors and the Vanquished|location=Abingdon & New York,&nbsp;NY|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0-415-35980-1|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Alan F. Wilt|year=1981|title=Hitler's Late Summer Pause in 1941|journal=Military Affairs|volume=45|issue=4|pages=187–91|jstor=1987464|doi=10.2307/1987464|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Roberta Wohlstetter|year=1962|title=Pearl Harbor: Warning and Decision|location=Palo Alto,&nbsp;CA|publisher=Stanford University Press|isbn=978-0-8047-0597-4|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1993|chapter=The Lucky Miracle: Germany 1945–1951|title=In Rudiger Dornbusch, Wilhelm Nölling and Richard Layard, eds., Postwar Economic Reconstruction and Lessons for the East Today (pp.&nbsp;29–56)|location=Cambridge, MA|publisher=MIT Press|isbn=978-0-262-04136-2|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2007|title=Japanese Military Strategy in the Pacific War: Was Defeat Inevitable?|location=Lanham, MD|publisher=Rowman & Littlefield|isbn=978-0-7425-5339-2|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1997|title=The Evolution of the United Nations System|edition=3rd|location=London & Washington,&nbsp;DC|publisher=Taylor & Francis|isbn=1-56032-546-1|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=1989|title=Adolf Hitler and the Third Reich in American magazines, 1923–1939|publisher=Bowling Green University Popular Press|isbn=0-87972-462-5|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |authorlink=Steven Zaloga|year=1996|title=Bagration 1944: The Destruction of Army Group Centre|location=Oxford|publisher=Osprey Publishing|isbn=978-1-85532-478-7|ref=harv}}

  • |first=

    |year=2004|title=Unconditional Defeat: Japan, America, and the End of World War II|location=Wilmington, DE|publisher=Scholarly Resources|isbn=978-0-8420-2991-9|ref=harv}}

  • |first1=

    |last2=

    |first2=

    |year=2009|title=Bismarck: The Final Days of Germany's Greatest Battleship|location=Drexel Hill,&nbsp;PA|publisher=Casemate|isbn=978-1-935149-04-0|ref=harv}}

External links

Conflicts in 1939 Conflicts in 1940 Conflicts in 1941 Conflicts in 1942 Conflicts in 1943 Conflicts in 1944 Conflicts in 1945 Contemporary French history Contemporary German history Contemporary Italian history Global conflicts History of Montenegro History of the Soviet Union and Soviet Russia History of the United States (1918–45) Modern Europe Modern history Nuclear warfare Wars involving Albania Wars involving Australia Wars involving Austria Wars involving Belgium Wars involving Bolivia Wars involving Brazil Wars involving British India Wars involving Bulgaria Wars involving Burma Wars involving Cambodia Wars involving Canada Wars involving Chile Wars involving Colombia Wars involving Costa Rica Wars involving Croatia Wars involving Cuba Wars involving Czechoslovakia Wars involving Denmark Wars involving Ecuador Wars involving Egypt Wars involving El Salvador Wars involving Estonia Wars involving Ethiopia Wars involving Finland Wars involving France Wars involving Germany Wars involving Greece Wars involving Guatemala Wars involving Haiti Wars involving Honduras Wars involving Hungary Wars involving Iceland Wars involving Indonesia Wars involving Italy Wars involving Iran Wars involving Iraq Wars involving Japan Wars involving Laos Wars involving Latvia Wars involving Lebanon Wars involving Liberia Wars involving Lithuania Wars involving Luxembourg Wars involving Mexico Wars involving Mongolia Wars involving Montenegro Wars involving Nepal Wars involving Norway Wars involving Nicaragua Wars involving Panama Wars involving Paraguay Wars involving Peru Wars involving Poland Wars involving Romania Wars involving Saudi Arabia Wars involving Serbia Wars involving Slovakia Wars involving Slovenia Wars involving South Africa Wars involving Sri Lanka Wars involving Syria Wars involving Thailand Wars involving Turkey Wars involving the Dominican Republic Wars involving the Netherlands Wars involving the Philippines Wars involving the Republic of China Wars involving the Soviet Union Wars involving the United Kingdom Wars involving the United States Wars involving Uruguay Wars involving Yugoslavia Wars involving Venezuela Wars involving Vietnam World War II War

world_war_ii.txt · Last modified: 2020/03/12 18:41 (external edit)