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File:Karte des Deutschen Reiches, Weimarer Republik-Drittes Reich 1919–1937.svg

The Weimar Republic (German: Weimarer Republik) is an often used unofficial name for the liberal democratic country created by the German Revolution of 1918–19 and the Treaty of Versailles. It ended when the NSDAP gained power in 1933 and created National Socialist Germany. The name derives from the city of Weimar, where a national assembly convened to write and adopt a new constitution, which became effective on 11 August 1919.

The official German name was the Deutsches Reich (“German Reich”), which was also the official name of the preceding German Empire and initially also the official name of National Socialist Germany.

Less politically correct views

Communist violence

Communists made several attempts to take power in coups, such as the Bavarian Soviet Republic and the Spartacist uprising by the Spartacus League. The non-Communist parties had the army and the Freikorps (nationalist militias) quell these uprisings by force.

The Communists continued to use large-scale political violence, gained increasing support during the Great Depression, and it has been argued that one the main reasons that the NSDAP was allowed take power was that the alternative was increasingly viewed as a Communist regime and rule of terror, similar to that in the Soviet Union.

Soviet offensive plans controversy

Supporters of the Soviet offensive plans theory have argued that Stalin already in the 1920s helped the German military to evade the restrictions of the Treaty of Versailles and to rearm by allowing the German military to produce and test their weapons on Soviet territory. Furthermore, Stalin has been argued to have helped Hitler to come to power by forbidding German Communists to make common cause with the Social Democrats against the National Socialists. Stalin is argued to have viewed the National Socialists and Germany as an “icebreaker”, intended to be one part of new war between capitalist countries, similar to WWI, which would make them weakened and then easily conquered by Communist uprisings and invasions.

Jewish influence and anti-Semitism

Jewish influence and anti-Semitism are often discussed aspects of the Weimar Republic.

The fall of the German Empire removed earlier restrictions on Jews, such as regarding appointments to higher governmental positions. See also Jewish influence: Germany.

A less well-known aspect is the anti-Semitism and extensive restrictions on Jewish influence in Poland after independence. This contributed to migration of many Polish Jews to Germany, which has been argued to have contributed to the anti-Semitism in Germany.

Critics, such as the National Socialists, saw the Jewish influence as contributing to argued degeneracy. One example was regarding as in the arts. See the Degenerate art article.

The influential Frankfurt School originated in the Weimar Republic.

The relationship between Jews and finance could be seen as related to the hyperinflation and later the Great Depression.

Jews were often prominent in stab in the back theories or otherwise seen as influential during the German Revolution of 1918–19.

Another criticism was of the relationship between Jews and Communism and Jewish influence on Communist (attempted) coups in Germany and elsewhere.

See also the articles on the Kristallnacht and Holocaust motivations.

See also the “External links” section in the article.

Quotes

  • Jews were especially visible in private banking in Berlin, which in 1923 had 150 private Jewish banks, as opposed to only 11 private non-Jewish banks. They owned 41% of iron and scrap iron firms and 57% of other metal businesses. Jews were very active in the stock market, particularly in Berlin, where in 1928 they comprised 80% of the leading members of the stock exchange. By 1933, when the Nazis [sic] began eliminating Jews from prominent positions, 85% of the brokers on the Berlin Stock exchange were dismissed because of their ‘race’. At least a quarter of full professors and instructors (at German universities) had Jewish origins. In 1905-6 Jewish students comprised 25% of the law and medical students. In 1931, 50% of the 234 theatre directors in Germany were Jewish, and in Berlin the number was 80%.” – Sarah Gordon, 1984, Hitler, Germans and the Jewish Question.
  • “In the all-important administration of Prussia, any number of strategic positions came into the hands of Hebrews. A telephone conversation between three Jews in Ministerial offices could result in the suspension of any periodical or newspaper in the state. No one who lived through the period from 1919 to 1926 is likely to forget the sexual promiscuity that prevailed. Throughout a town like Berlin, hotels and pensions made vast fortunes by letting rooms by the hour or day to baggageless, unregistered guests, throngs of child prostitutes outside the doors of the great Berlin hotels and restaurants. Most of them (the night clubs and vice-resorts) were owned and managed by Jews.” – Edgar Mowrer, 1939, Germany Puts the Clock Back.
  • “In the Berlin of pre-Hitler years most of the theatres were Jewish-owned or Jewish-leased, most of the leading film and stage actors were Jews, the plays performed were often by German, Austrian or Hungarian Jews and were staged by Jewish film producers, applauded by Jewish dramatic critics in Jewish newspapers. The Jews are not cleverer than the Gentiles, if by clever you mean good at their jobs. They ruthlessly exploit the common feeling of Jews, first to get a foothold in a particular trade or calling, then to squeeze the non-Jews out of it. It is not true that Jews are better journalists than Gentiles. They held all the posts on those Berlin papers because the proprietors and editors were Jewish.” – Edgar Mowrer, 1939, Disgrace Abounding.
  • “Even in November 1938, after five years of anti-Semitic legislation and persecution [sic], they still owned, according to the Times correspondent in Berlin, something like a third of the real property in the Reich. The banks, including the Reichsbank and the big private banks, were practically controlled by them. So were the publishing trade, the cinema, the theatres and a large part of the press all the normal means, in fact, by which public opinion in a civilized country is formed. The largest newspaper combine in the country with a daily circulation of four millions was a Jewish monopoly. Every year it became harder and harder for a gentile to gain or keep a foothold in any privileged occupation. At this time it was not the ‘Aryans’ who exercised racial discrimination. It was a discrimination that operated without violence. It was exercised by a Jewish minority against a White majority. There was no persecution, only elimination.” – Sir Arthur Bryant, 1940, Unfinished Victory.
  • “The Ullstein group was a kind of super-trust; the largest organization of its kind in Europe, and probably in the world. They published four daily papers in Berlin alone, among these the venerable Vossische Zeitung, founded in the eighteenth century, and the B.Z. am Mittag, an evening paper. Apart from these, Ullstein’s published more than a dozen weekly and monthly periodicals, ran their own news service, their own travel agency, etc., and were one of the leading book publishers. The firm was owned by the brothers Ullstein – they were five, like the original Rothschild brothers, and like them also, they were Jews.” – Arthur Koestler, 1949, The God that Failed.

See also

Article archives

Encyclopedias

Germany

Weimarer Republik Weimari vabariik República de Weimar República de Weimar



The Weimar Republic is the name of the administration which governed Germany from 1919 to 1933 after its defeat in World War I and the stepping down of Kaiser Wilhelm II. The name Weimar Republic is given because the constitution had been drafted in the city of Weimar as the capital, Berlin, was considered too dangerous in the period immediately following the end of World War I. To contemporaries, the country was still referred to as Germany, and officially (despite the new republican constitution) the German Reich. The republic experienced many problems.

One reason were the harsh terms of Versailles Treaty. Although the terms of the treaty were never fully enforced, the psychological damage was immense, since they were perceived as a grave injustice. Most German civilians were taken by surprise by their nation's surrender in the war, seeing as they had no idea that they were losing the war. <ref>Dr E.J. Feuchtwanger wrote, “The defeat of 1918 hit the German public with brutal suddenness. To the very end they had been told that victory was within their grasp.” ://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~semp/weimar.htm </ref> In truth Germany had no choice. They were not allowed to give input, and were only told to sign. Seeds of anti-Semitism also began to grow at a grassroots level, which partially paved the way for the rise to power of Adolf Hitler. The press, and many Germans, irrationally blamed Jews for their loss, and radical groups began to grow in influence as the economy grew worse. The National Socialism movement (also known as the Nazi Party) in particular blamed Jews for the country's woes, and promised that in a Third Reich, they would be denied their rights. The party cranked up their hate propaganda machine, particularly after 1929, and was elected into power in 1933. <ref>Shoah Resource Center: http://www1.yadvashem.org/odot_pdf/Microsoft%20Word%20-%203261.pdf</ref>

The republic was also struggling with the rejection by monarchist, who were still occupying important position in the state. Many WWI veterans believed that the German forces in WW I were not defeated, but that the social democratic leaders, who founded the Weimar republic to thwart a communist revolution, surrendered to the allies for political gains. It was know is known as the “stab-in-the-back myth”, and was used to discredit the republic <ref>German Notes: “Dolchstosslegende social mythos and propaganda to blame loss of World War I upon non-Germans and non-nationalists”://www.germannotes.com/hist_weimar_dolch.shtml</ref>.

The early years were characterized by hyper-inflation, which was caused when the government started printing money since it was low on cash, in part due to reparation payments. The value of the German mark went from 4 to the dollar to over 1 trillion to the dollar at the peak of the inflation in 1923. Although the Weimar Republic enjoyed a time of economic resurgence after the early years of hyper-inflation it failed to gain deep public support. The Weimar Republic was famously called a 'democracy without democrats'.

See Also

References

weimar_republic.txt · Last modified: 2020/03/12 18:41 (external edit)