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Snippet from Wikipedia: Very high frequency

Very high frequency (VHF) is the ITU designation for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves (radio waves) from 30 to 300 megahertz (MHz), with corresponding wavelengths of ten meters to one meter. Frequencies immediately below VHF are denoted high frequency (HF), and the next higher frequencies are known as ultra high frequency (UHF).

Common uses for radio waves in the VHF band are digital audio broadcasting (DAB) and FM radio broadcasting, television broadcasting, two-way land mobile radio systems (emergency, business, private use and military), long range data communication up to several tens of kilometers with radio modems, amateur radio, and marine communications. Air traffic control communications and air navigation systems (e.g. VOR & ILS) work at distances of 100 kilometres (62 mi) or more to aircraft at cruising altitude.

In the Americas and many other parts of the world, VHF Band I was used for the transmission of analog television. As part of the worldwide transition to digital terrestrial television most countries require broadcasters to air television in the VHF range using digital rather than analog format.

s used for broadcast television reception. These six antennas are a type known as a Yagi antenna, which is widely used at VHF frequencies]]

Very high frequency (VHF) is the ITU-designated range <ref name=“ITU Nomenclature”>

</ref> of radio frequency electromagnetic waves from

to

, with corresponding wavelengths of one to ten meters. Frequencies immediately below VHF are denoted high frequency (HF), and the next higher frequencies are known as ultra high frequency (UHF). Common uses for VHF are FM radio broadcasting, television broadcasting, land mobile stations (emergency, business, private use and military), long range data communication up to several tens of kilometres with radio modems, amateur radio, and marine communications. Air traffic control communications and air navigation systems (e.g. VOR, DME & ILS) work at distances of 100 kilometres or more to aircraft at cruising altitude.

## Propagation characteristics

VHF propagation characteristics are ideal for short-distance terrestrial communication, with a range generally somewhat farther than line-of-sight from the transmitter (see formula below). Unlike high frequencies (HF), the ionosphere does not usually reflect VHF waves (called skywave propagation) so transmissions are restricted to the local radio horizon less than 100 miles. VHF is also less affected by atmospheric noise and interference from electrical equipment than lower frequencies. While it is blocked by land features such as hills and mountains, it is less affected by buildings and can be received indoors, although multipath television reception due to reflection from buildings can be a problem in urban areas

## Line-of-sight calculation

For analog TV, VHF transmission range is a function of transmitter power, receiver sensitivity, and distance to the horizon, since VHF signals propagate under normal conditions as a near line-of-sight phenomenon. The distance to the radio horizon is slightly extended over the geometric line of sight to the horizon, as radio waves are weakly bent back toward the Earth by the atmosphere.

An approximation to calculate the line-of-sight horizon distance (on Earth) is:

• distance in nautical miles = $\sqrt{1.5 \times A_f}$ where $A_f$ is the height of the antenna in feet
• distance in kilometres = $\sqrt{12.746 \times A_m}$ where $A_m$ is the height of the antenna in metres.

These approximations are only valid for antennas at heights that are small compared to the radius of the Earth. They may not necessarily be accurate in mountainous areas, since the landscape may not be transparent enough for radio waves.

In engineered communications systems, more complex calculations are required to assess the probable coverage area of a proposed transmitter station.

The accuracy of these calculations for digital TV signals is being debated.<ref name=grotticelli>

</ref>

## Antennas

VHF is the first band at which wavelengths are small enough to make efficient transmitting antennas for handheld devices, so the VHF and UHF wavelengths are used for handheld transceivers and walkie talkies. Fixed station antennas are usually based on the dipole, while portable radios usually use whips or rubber ducky antennas. The Yagi antenna is the most widely used as a high gain or “beam” antenna. Helical and turnstile antennas are used for satellite communication since they employ circular polarization. For even higher gain, multiple Yagis or helicals can be mounted together as an array antennas. Television and FM broadcasting stations use collinear arrays of specialized dipole antennas such as batwing antennas.

## Universal use

Certain subparts of the VHF band have the same use around the world. Some national uses are detailed below.

## By country

### Australia

The VHF TV band in Australia was originally allocated channels 1 to 10 - with channels 2, 7 and 9 assigned for the initial services in Sydney and Melbourne, and later the same channels were assigned in Brisbane, Adelaide and Perth. Other capital cities and regional areas used a combination of these and other frequencies as available. The initial commercial services in Hobart and Darwin were respectively allocated channels 6 and 8 rather than 7 or 9.

By the early 1960s it became apparent that the 10 VHF channels were insufficient to support the growth of television services. This was rectified by the addition of three additional frequencies - channels 0, 5A and 11. Older television sets using rotary dial tuners required adjustment to receive these new channels. Most TVs of that era were not equipped to receive these broadcasts, and so were modified at the owners' expense to be able to tune into these bands; otherwise the owner had to buy a new TV.

Several TV stations were allocated to VHF channels 3, 4 and 5, which were within the FM radio bands although not yet used for that purpose. A couple of notable examples were NBN-3 Newcastle, WIN-4 Wollongong and ABC Newcastle on channel 5. While some Channel 5 stations were moved to 5A in the 1970s and 80s, beginning in the 1990s, the Australian Broadcasting Authority began a process to move these stations to UHF bands to free up valuable VHF spectrum for its original purpose of FM radio. In addition, by 1985 the federal government decided new TV stations are to be broadcast on the UHF band.

Two new VHF frequencies, 9A and 12, have since been made available and are being used primarily for digital services (e.g. ABC in capital cities) but also for some new analogue services in regional areas. Because channel 9A is not used for television services in or near Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide or Perth, digital radio in those cities are broadcast on DAB frequencies blocks 9A, 9B and 9C.

### New Zealand

• 44&ndash;51, 54&ndash;68&nbsp;MHz: Band I Television (channels 1&ndash;3)
• 174&ndash;230&nbsp;MHz: Band III Television (channels 4&ndash;11)

In New Zealand, the four main Free-to-Air TV stations still use the VHF Television bands (Band I and Band III) to transmit to New Zealand households. Other stations, including a variety of pay and regional free-to-air stations, are forced to broadcast in the UHF band, since the VHF band is very overloaded with four stations sharing a very small frequency band, which can be so overcrowded that one or more channels, more often than not one of the MediaWorks-owned channels (TV3 and FOUR), is unavailable in some smaller towns.

However, by the end of 2013, there will be no television channels broadcasting on the VHF bands.<ref>

</ref>

### United Kingdom

British television originally used VHF band I and band III. Television on VHF was in black and white with 405-line format (although there were experiments with all three colour systems—NTSC, PAL, and SECAM—adapted for the 405-line system in the late 1950s and early 60s).

British colour television was broadcast on UHF (channels 21–69), beginning in the late 1960s. From then on, TV was broadcast on both VHF and UHF (VHF being a monochromatic downconversion from the 625-line colour signal), with the exception of BBC2 (which had always broadcast solely on UHF). The last British VHF TV transmitters closed down on January 3, 1985. VHF band III is now used in the UK for digital audio broadcasting, and VHF band II is used for FM radio, as it is in most of the world.

Unusually, the UK has an amateur radio allocation at 4 metres, 70-70.5&nbsp;MHz.

Frequency assignments between US and Canadian users are closely coordinated since much of the Canadian population is within VHF radio range of the US border. Certain discrete frequencies are reserved for radio astronomy. The general services in the VHF band are:

• 7-1001 MHz: Cable TV
• 30&ndash;46&nbsp;MHz: Licensed 2-way land mobile communication.<ref>The 42 MHz Segment is still currently used by the California Highway Patrol, New Jersey State Police, Tennessee Highway Patrol and other state law enforcement agencies.</ref>
• 30&ndash;88&nbsp;MHz: Military VHF-FM, including SINCGARS
• 43&ndash;50&nbsp;MHz: Cordless telephones, 49&nbsp;MHz FM walkie-talkies and radio controlled toys, and mixed 2-way mobile communication. The FM broadcast band originally operated here (42-50&nbsp;MHz) before moving to 88-108&nbsp;MHz.
• 50&ndash;54&nbsp;MHz: Amateur radio 6 meters band
• 54-72 and 76-88&nbsp;MHz TV channels 2 through 6 (VHF-Lo), known as “Band I” internationally; some DTV stations will appear here. See North American broadcast television frequencies
• 72&ndash;76&nbsp;MHz: Radio controlled models, industrial remote control, and other devices. Model aircraft operate on 72&nbsp;MHz while surface models operate on 75&nbsp;MHz in the USA and Canada, air navigation beacons 74.8-75.2&nbsp;MHz.
• 87.5&ndash;108&nbsp;MHz: FM radio broadcasting (87.5&ndash;91.9 non-commercial, 92&ndash;108 commercial in the United States) (known as “Band II” internationally)
• 108&ndash;118&nbsp;MHz: Air navigation beacons VOR
• 118&ndash;137&nbsp;MHz: Airband for air traffic control, AM, 121.5&nbsp;MHz is an emergency frequency
• 137-138 Space research, space operations, meteorological satellite <ref>Industry Canada, Canadian Table of Frequency Allocations 9 kHz - 275 GHz, 2005 Edition (revised February 2007) pg. 29</ref>
• 138&ndash;144&nbsp;MHz: Land mobile, auxiliary civil services, satellite, space research, and other miscellaneous services
• 144&ndash;148&nbsp;MHz: Amateur radio 2 Meters band
• 148-150&nbsp;MHz: Land mobile, fixed, satellite
• 150&ndash;156&nbsp;MHz: “VHF business band,” public safety, the unlicensed Multi-Use Radio Service (MURS), and other 2-way land mobile, FM
• 156&ndash;158&nbsp;MHz VHF Marine Radio; narrow band FM, 156.8&nbsp;MHz (Channel 16) is the maritime emergency and contact frequency.
• 159.81-161.565&nbsp;MHz Railways <ref>The 160 and 161 areas are AAR 99 channel railroad radios issued to the railroad (Sample, AAR 21 is 160.425 and that is issued to TVRM and other railroads that want AAR 21).</ref> 159.81-160.2 are railroads in Canada only and is used by trucking companies in the U.S.
• 160.6-162 Wireless microphones and TV/FM broadcast remote pickup
• 162.40&ndash;162.55: NOAA Weather Stations, narrowband FM
• 174-216&nbsp;MHz television channels 7 - 13 (VHF-Hi), known as “Band III” internationally. A number of DTV channels have begun broadcasting here, especially many of the stations which were assigned to these channels for previous analog operation.
• 174&ndash;216&nbsp;MHz: professional wireless microphones (low power, certain exact frequencies only)
• 216&ndash;222&nbsp;MHz: land mobile, fixed, maritime mobile,<ref>Canadian table pg. 30</ref>
• 225&nbsp;MHz and above: Military aircraft radio, 243&nbsp;MHz is an emergency frequency (225&ndash;400&nbsp;MHz) AM, including HAVE QUICK, dGPS RTCM-104

#### VHF television

The U.S. FCC's added television to the VHF band in 1941 on channels one through six. During World War II, channel one was removed and used only for war purposes. (It later became the 6 meter amateur band.) In 1945, channels seven through thirteen were added.<ref>William Boddy, Fifties Television: The Industry and Its Critics, University of Illinois Press, 1992, ISBN 978-0-252-06299-5</ref> The development of arguably more efficient digital television broadcasting standards to replace VHF television has made the large technically and commercially valuable slice of the VHF spectrum formerly taken up by television broadcasting available for relicensing or sale after a transition period, which ended June 12, 2009 in the United States; see Effect on existing analog technology for dates in other countries.

#### 87.5-87.9 MHz

87.5-87.9&nbsp;MHz is a radio frequency which, in most of the world, is used for FM broadcasting. In North America, however, this bandwidth is allocated to VHF television channel 6 (82-88&nbsp;MHz). The analog audio for TV channel 6 is broadcast at 87.75&nbsp;MHz (adjustable down to 87.74). Several stations, most notably those joining the Pulse 87 franchise, have operated on this frequency as radio stations, though they use television licenses. As a result, FM radio receivers such as those found in automobiles which are designed to tune into this frequency range could receive the audio for analog-mode programming on the local TV channel 6 while in North America.

87.9&nbsp;MHz is normally off-limits for FM audio broadcasting except for displaced class D stations which have no other frequencies in the normal 88.1-107.9&nbsp;MHz subband on which to move. So far, only 2 stations have qualified to operate on 87.9&nbsp;MHz: 10-watt KSFH in Mountain View, California and 34-watt translator K200AA in Sun Valley, Nevada.