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Snippet from Wikipedia: Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, architect, philosopher, and Founding Father who served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809. He previously served as the second vice president of the United States from 1797 to 1801. The principal author of the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson was a proponent of democracy, republicanism, and individual rights, motivating American colonists to break from the Kingdom of Great Britain and form a new nation; he produced formative documents and decisions at both the state and national level.

During the American Revolution, he represented Virginia in the Continental Congress that adopted the Declaration, drafted the law for religious freedom as a Virginia legislator, and served as the second Governor of Virginia from 1779 to 1781, during the American Revolutionary War. He became the United States Minister to France in May 1785, and subsequently, the nation's first secretary of state under President George Washington from 1790 to 1793. Jefferson and James Madison organized the Democratic-Republican Party to oppose the Federalist Party during the formation of the First Party System. With Madison, he anonymously wrote the provocative Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions in 1798 and 1799, which sought to strengthen states' rights by nullifying the federal Alien and Sedition Acts.

As president, Jefferson pursued the nation's shipping and trade interests against Barbary pirates and aggressive British trade policies. Starting in 1803, Jefferson promoted a western expansionist policy, organizing the Louisiana Purchase, doubling the nation's land area. To make room for white settlement, Jefferson began a controversial process of Indian tribal removal from the newly acquired territory. As a result of peace negotiations with France, his administration reduced military forces. Jefferson was reelected in 1804. His second term was beset with difficulties at home, including the trial of former vice president Aaron Burr. In 1807, American foreign trade was diminished when Jefferson implemented the Embargo Act in response to British threats to U.S. shipping. The same year, Jefferson signed the Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves. After retiring from public office, he founded the University of Virginia.

Jefferson, while primarily a planter, lawyer and politician, mastered many disciplines, which ranged from surveying and mathematics to horticulture and mechanics. He was an architect in the classical tradition. Jefferson's keen interest in religion and philosophy led to his presidency of the American Philosophical Society; he shunned organized religion but was influenced by both Christianity and deism. A philologist, Jefferson knew several languages. He was a prolific letter writer and corresponded with many prominent people. His only full-length book is Notes on the State of Virginia (1785), considered perhaps the most important American book published before 1800.

Although Jefferson is regarded as a leading spokesman for democracy and republicanism in the era of the Enlightenment, some modern scholarship has been critical of Jefferson, finding a contradiction between his ownership and trading of many slaves that worked his plantations, and his famous declaration that "all men are created equal." Although the matter remains a subject of debate, most historians believe that Jefferson had a sexual relationship with his slave Sally Hemings, a mixed-race woman who was a half-sister to his late wife and that he fathered at least one of her children. Presidential scholars and historians generally praise Jefferson's public achievements, including his advocacy of religious freedom and tolerance in Virginia. Jefferson continues to rank highly among U.S. presidents.

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}} Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), was one of early proponents of a Constitutional Republic in world history and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He was the primary author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), relying heavily on the ideas in the Virginia Declaration of Rights. Jefferson was also the first Secretary of State (1789-1793), and the founder of one of the world's two first political parties, the Jeffersonian Republican Party (1793) in opposition to the Federalist Party of his arch-rival Alexander Hamilton. He “distrusted the federal government because he knew it would grow too large, become disconnected from the people, and be heir to the arrogance, insolence and prideful haughtiness that is the lot of the unrestrained …”<ref> PRUDEN: Winning the war against ‘civility’ - Editorial in the Washington Times[[</ref> A friend of France and the French Revolution, and a bitter enemy of Britain in the 1790s, Jefferson soured on France after [[Napoleon came to power and ended democracy there. As President (1801-1809) Jefferson purchased the vast Louisiana Territory in 1803, but was generally ineffective and made a big mistake in signing the Embargo Act of 1807 into law, which he later extended to prohibit certain trade with Canada. Though the embargo applied to both Britain and France, it heightened tensions with Britain, caused economic problems in the United States, and led to the War of 1812.

Jefferson is best known as political theorist who helped redefine republicanism and promoted democracy and equal rights, while fighting aristocracy and established religion.

Early Career

Jefferson was the third child born to a well-connected tobacco planter family of moderate wealth in Goochland County on Virginia's western frontier. His father, Peter Jefferson (1707-57), of Welsh descent, owned slaves and was a county magistrate who was elected to the House of Burgesses (the colonial legislature). His mother, Jane Randolph, belonged to the leading family in the British colony. Peter taught the boy farming; they hunted and fished together. His formal education began under two Anglican ministers. He became proficient in Latin and Greek and had later became proficient in French. He was also tutored in dancing, became polished on the violin, learned chess, avoided cards, and was a fearless and accomplished horseman. His father died in 1757 leaving him some slaves and 2,750 acres of undeveloped farmland.<ref>Merrill D. Peterson, Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation: A Biography (1975) ch. 1</ref>

Jefferson was well educated at William and Mary College (class of 1762), and studied law. He was a polymath who read voraciously in history, politics, philosophy, linguistics, architecture and natural science. He studied science with Dr. William Small, who introduce him to Gov. Francis Fauquier and to George Wythe, the leading legal expert of the day in Virginia, who directed Jefferson's reading in law. He was a well-disciplined student who ignored the gambling and horse-racing of his peers to immerse himself in science law and history. He lost his Anglican religion along the way. He mastered the common law treatises of Sir Edward Coke, and was admitted to the Virginia bar in 1767. He was successful but did not enjoy the tasks and gave up his practice by 1774. However the lawyerly style reappears in his famous state papers where he acts the advocate pleading a cause and buttressing it with precedents. Jefferson was never a good speaker, but he excelled in learning and industry and in precision and clarity of writing. His written arguments are powerful; his “Declaration of Independence” remains the touchstone for powerful argumentation.

Patriot

Jefferson had absorbed both the latest ideas of the Enlightenment and the precepts of republicanism as taught by the pamphlets of the British “country party”, which had long been out of power. Jefferson became committed to the ancient rights of Englishmen possessed by Virginians; he was outraged that parliament would threaten those rights.

As the storms of the 1770s broke young Jefferson had never fully exercised his powerful intellect or fluent pen; he was known as a promising lawyer in a land of great lawyers, a successful planter in a slave society, and a lover of books, science, and music in a land of horse-racing. He was a loyal subject of King George III. From 1768 to 1775 Jefferson was a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses for Albemarle.

Congress

In 1773, following the lead of Massachusetts, Jefferson helped establish Virginia's Provincial Committee of Correspondence to keep in touch with the other 12 colonies and operate as a shadow government in defiance of the governor. In 1774 he drew up resolutions that were published by the first Virginia convention as “A Summary View of the Rights of British America.”<ref> see for text</ref> This pamphlet, issued in four editions that year, argued that Parliament had no right to legislate for the colonies and that the British Empire was bound together solely by allegiance to the king. It proved one of the most influential statements of the patriot position and was widely read.

In 1775 Jefferson was elected to the Second Continental Congress, meeting in Philadelphia. He drafted the resolution rejecting the conciliatory proposals of the British minister, Lord North. He was appointed county lieutenant in September and did not return to Congress until May 1776. He drafted a proposed constitution for the state of Virginia which was adopted in part.

Declaration of Independence

As a delegate to the Continental Congress he and John Adams of Massachusetts took the lead in pushing for independence. On June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee of the Virginia delegation proposed independence. Congress appointed a committee of five men to draw up a suitable public declaration. Jefferson was selected to write it because he was a Virginian, a recognized writer, and a zealous committeeman. He incorporated ideas and phrases from many sources to arrive at a consensus statement that all patriots could agree upon. His colleagues Benjamin Franklin and Adams made small changes in his draft text and Congress made more. The finished document, which both declared independence and proclaimed a philosophy of government, was singly and peculiarly Jefferson's.<ref> See "Declaration of Independence"</ref>

The opening philosophical section is closely based on George Mason's “Declaration of Rights,” a notable summary of current revolutionary philosophy.<ref> see "The Virginia Declaration of Rights," Final Draft,12 June 1776</ref> Mason wrote: ::That all men are by nature equally free and independent, and have certain inherent rights, of which, when they enter into a state of society, they cannot, by any compact, deprive or divest their posterity; namely, the enjoyment of life and liberty, with the means of acquiring and possessing property, and pursuing and obtaining happiness and safety. Jefferson rewrote it: ::We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.–That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed.

Jefferson himself did not believe in absolute human equality, and, though he had no fears of revolution, he preferred that the “social compact” be renewed by periodical, peaceful revisions. That government should be based on popular consent and secure the “inalienable” rights of man, among which he included the pursuit of happiness rather than property, that it should be a means to human well-being and not an end in itself, he steadfastly believed. He gave here a matchless expression of his faith.

The charges against King George III, who is singled out because the patriots denied all claims of parliamentary authority, represent an improved version of charges that Jefferson wrote for the preamble of the Virginia constitution of 1776. Relentless in their reiteration, they constitute a statement of the specific grievances of the revolting party, powerfully and persuasively presented at the bar of public opinion.

The Declaration is notable for both its clarity and subtlety of expression, and it abounds in the felicities that are characteristic of Jefferson's best prose.<ref> See Carl Becker, The Declaration of Independence: A Study in the History of Political Ideas (1922) ch. 5, online edition; Garry Wills, Inventing America: Jefferson's Declaration of Independence. (1978); Pauline Maier, American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence. (1997)</ref> More impassioned than any other of his writings, it is eloquent in its sustained elevation of style and remains his noblest literary monument.

The concepts of natural law, of inviolable rights, and of government by consent were drawn from the republican tradition that stretched back to ancient Rome and was neither new nor distinctively American. However it was unprecedented for a nation to declare that it would be governed by these propositions. It was Jefferson's almost religious commitment to these republican propositions that is the key to his entire life. He was more than the author of this statement of the national purpose: he was a living example of its philosophy, accepting its ideals as the controlling principles of his own life. Congress adopted the Declaration on July 4, 1776, which became the birthday of the independent nation.<ref>Peterson, Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation (1975) ch. 2</ref>

When the Declaration was signed, all British forces had been driven out of the 13 colonies, which now became the 13 states. However King George III refused to give up and of “his” possessions, so the war dragged on until the final American victory at Yorktown in 1781 caused Parliament to change the government in London and sue for peace.

World impact

The Declaration immediately sparked serious discussion in Europe and Latin America about the legitimacy of empires. By the 21st century, over 100 countries had their own declarations of independence, modeled in part on the very first one by Jefferson in 1776.<ref> Historians discount the influence of previous declarations. David Armitage, The Declaration of Independence: A Global History (2007) excerpt and text search</ref>

Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom

: Main Article: Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom was written by Thomas Jefferson in 1777<ref>Atkinson, Kathleen (2007). “Early Virginians and Religious Freedom for Americans.” Virginia Commonwealth University. The World Religions in Richmond Project.</ref>, introduced in the Virginia General Assembly in 1779, and on January 16, 1786 enacted into state law through the assistance of James Madison.<ref>Virginia Historical Society. “16 January 1786: Statute for Religious Freedom.” On This Day: Legislative Moments in Virginia History.</ref> The legislation is one of only three accomplishments Jefferson instructed be included in his epitaph.<ref>“Brief Biography of Thomas Jefferson.” The Jefferson Monticello.</ref> It is often claimed that Jefferson was not Christian but a Deist and that his use of the term “Nature's God” in the Declaration of Independence was to a vague concept of a designer or even nature itself.<ref>Voelker, David J. (1993). “Who is Nature's God?Hanover Historical Review 1.</ref><ref>Isaacson, Walter (2004, July 5). “Thomas Jefferson: God of our Fathers.” Time Magazine.</ref> However, such arguments do not mention Jefferson's Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, perhaps because (1) such critics aren't aware of it, or (2) the document very clearly shows Jefferson's beliefs were more refined:

Since Thomas Jefferson called William Penn “the greatest law giver the world has produced”<ref name=phmc>Ries, Linda A. & Stewart, Jane S. “This Venerable Document.” Pennsylvania Historical & Museum Commission.</ref> it would seem that whatever his beliefs may have become in later years, he derived his original inspiration from the Christian government of William Penn over a century earlier, the Province of Pennsylvania.

Autobiography

Jefferson's autobiography provides more insight on the Virginia Statute. Jefferson stated,

Therefore, it appears that this was actually a more liberal statement by not using the name “Jesus Christ” at the time, much moreso than the clearly Christian origins of William Penn a century earlier. The Virginia legislature wanted to ensure all religions were “within the mantle of it's protection”. Nevertheless, while it may have protected the beliefs of atheists or “infidel[s]” as Jefferson stated, the references to a Creator show such a belief was requisite for stating inalienable rights accorded by law.

Reforming Virginia

In September 1776 Jefferson left the national capital in Philadelphia and spent the rest of the war in Virginia, where he took control of the legislature and had a significant impact in shaping the laws of the new state.<ref>Peterson, Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation (1975) ch. 3</ref> In the House of Delegates he proposed a series of major reforms–almost unparalleled in scope and unequaled as the work of a single legislator. Of 126 bills he proposed, four-fifths were enacted in some form; and Jefferson drew up almost half the total. In 1779 he proposed “The Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom,” which was adopted in 1786.<ref> see text</ref> Its goal was complete separation of church and state and declared the opinions of men to be beyond the jurisdiction of the civil magistrate. He asserted that the mind is not subject to coercion, that civil rights have no dependence on religious opinions, and that the opinions of men are not the concern of civil government, became one of the American charters of freedom. This elevated declaration of the freedom of the mind was hailed in Europe as “an example of legislative wisdom and liberality never before known.”<ref> See Richard Price to Sylvanus Urban,, July 26, 1786, in Richard Price, ''The correspondence of Richard Price,'' (1991) vol. 2, p. 45 online</ref>

Jefferson put forth numerous proposals to reform public education, but they failed at this time. He did manage to abolish the professorships of Hebrew, theology, and ancient languages at the College of William and Mary, and instead set up professorships of anatomy and medicine, law, and modern languages, the two latter being the first of their kind in America. His proposals to gradually end slavery were not reported out of committee.

His laws on inheritance ended the practice of primogeniture, whereby the eldest son inherited the entire estate, so as to spread out wealth more evenly and open up opportunities for more young men.

In 1779 he was elected to succeed Patrick Henry as governor of Virginia for a one year term. Everything went wrong. British invasions by land and sea, Indian raids in the west, fiscal shortfalls, militia problems, profiteering, personal rivalries, and the shift of the main theater of war to Virginia created more challenges than he could solve. Re-elected in 1780, he saw the main British army under Cornwallis enter from the South in 1781; the Continental Army commander, General Von Steuben, was outmaneuvered. Jefferson quit office before his successor was named and the legislature had fled; he was almost captured when the British raided Monticello looking for him. Fortunately Washington arrived with the American and French armies and trapped Cornwallis at Yorktown, where the entire British army surrendered. Later the legislature investigated his administration and vindicated him, but Jefferson was embarrassed. Jefferson was an efficient, systematic, indefatigable administrator with a knack for getting men to work together smoothly, but his militia could not match the British army. He coped with these problems with a degree of success or failure that remains controversial among scholars. <ref>Peterson, Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation (1975) ch. 4</ref>

He suffered an irreparable loss when his beloved wife Martha died in 1782 and he gave up all idea of ever marrying again; they had three surviving daughters—Martha (1772–1836), Mary (1778–1804), and Lucy (1782–1784).

''Notes on the State of Virginia''

In 1780-83, Jefferson wrote his only book, Notes on the State of Virginia.<ref> See for complete text of ''Notes on the State of Virginia''</ref> It was written in the form of answers to questions about the geography, natural resources, Indians, government and economy of Virginia, based on his own research. The book was first published in French in Paris in 1785 (and in English in 1787), and immediately Jefferson's scientific reputation in Europe, while debunking some outlandish theories, especially those of the eminent naturalist the Comte de Buffon, to the effect that animals regressed to smaller size in the new world. Jefferson's coup came with the mammoth, the giant extinct animal, five times bigger than an elephant, whose tusks, grinders, and bones had been recently dug up in the western part of the state.<ref>Peterson, Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation (1975) pp 242-52; Thomas O. Jewett, "Thomas Jefferson Paleontologist," ''Early America Review'', Fall 2000 online</ref>

Confederation Congress

In 1783 Jefferson returned to Congress, became its leader, and launched another intensive legislative effort. His major achievement was conceptualizing a solution for territorial government in the land north of the Ohio River. Virginia ceded its land claims to the national government, Jefferson proposed a checkerboard system of land surveys, which avoided the terrible confusion that caused endless lawsuits over land ownership south of the river. One section in every sixteen was set aside to support public schools. Statehood was promised once a territory reached a certain population. Jefferson would not allow slavery in the territories. Many of Jefferson's ideas were passed into law after he left Congress, notably in the Land Ordinance of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.<ref>Peterson, Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation (1975) pp 274-85</ref>

Jefferson's report on coinage established the decimal dollar as the unit of money, though he failed then and later to secure a system of uniform weights and measures based on decimal notation.

Minister to France

He succeeded Benjamin Franklin as minister to France (1785-89), and so was not present when the Constitution was written and ratified.<ref>Peterson, Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation (1975) ch. 6</ref>

1790s

Jefferson returned from France in 1789 and became the first Secretary of State (1789-1793) in the cabinet of President George Washington. With his close ally James Madison (a member of the House) Jefferson opposed the Hamiltonian programs for national finance, especially assumption of state wartime debts and the First National Bank. Jefferson and Madison and created a new party the Republicans, (called the Democratic-Republican Party by historians) to oppose Hamilton's Federalist party. These were the first two modern political parties in the world (that is the first to reach out to the voters for support). Jefferson and his Republicans supported the French Revolution (from 1793 to 1800), while the Federalists favored Britain. President Washington managed to maintain neutrality in the war between Britain and France. Hamilton had more influence than Jefferson, even in foreign policy, as shown by Hamilton's success in securing the Jay Treaty of 1795 that opened ten years of friendly trade with Britain.<ref>Peterson, Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation (1975) ch. 7</ref>

Jefferson was defeated for president in the election of 1796 by John Adams, but became Vice President. When the Quasi War (that is undeclared war) with France broke out in 1798 and Federalists passed the Alien and Sedition laws, Jefferson and Madison protested by secretly writing the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions of 1798. They argued the right of state governments to nullify federal laws considered unconstitutional; this was the start of the States Rights theory that played a role in the coming of the American Civil War in 1861 and still plays a role in Constitutional debates.<ref>Peterson, Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation (1975) ch. 8</ref>

President: Successful first term, 1801-1805

Jefferson defeated Adams and was elected President in 1800, in what his supporters called the Revolution of 1800. In his first term Jefferson negotiated the Louisiana Purchase with France. then sent Lewis and Clark to explore the vast new lands. He set up a territorial system for the Louisiana purchase. He promoted reservations for Indians to settle them on fixed parcels of land and teach them farming (instead of hunting and raiding).<ref>Peterson, Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation (1975) ch. 9</ref>

Jefferson removed many Federalist office holders in order to balance the civil service between parties. Bitterly opposed to strong judges, he had Congress abolish the lower courts the Federalists had created, and tried to impeach and remove two Federalist judges. He succeeded in removing one incompetent figure but was defeated when he tried to remove Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase. Jefferson never dared attack Chief Justice John Marshall, a Federalist who made the Supreme Court a bastion of nationalism, much to Jefferson's disgust.

President: Troubled second term, 1805-1809

Jefferson's second term was marked by escalating tensions with both Britain and France (which were at war with each other). Jefferson's use of economic warfare, especially the Embargo of 1807, failed, as he tried to crack down on New England merchants who defied laws that restricted their trade. Jefferson opposed building up the army or navy, insisting that the militia would suffice, aided by small gunboats.

Most historians judge his military policies a major disaster, for they failed badly when the War of 1812 with Britain came three years after he left office.<ref>Peterson, Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation (1975) ch. 10</ref>

Jefferson left the White House under a cloud and never ran for office again.

Retirement

In political retirement Jefferson helped create and design the University of Virginia, which he considered a major accomplishment. He believed that republican government depends on an informed citizenry; that education is a duty of the state; and that, while all should be given learning sufficient to enable them to understand their rights and duties as citizens, the “natural aristocracy” of virtue and talent should be drawn forth from the general mass and given every opportunity of public education. He continued through life to advocate this philosophy of education.<ref>Peterson, Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation (1975) ch. 11</ref>

Jefferson died on July 4th, Independence Day, in 1826. It was the same day as the death of John Adams. They had been close friends until the political wars of the 1790s drove them apart, then resumed their friendship with a brilliant correspondence.

Image and memory

The modern Democratic Party claims direct descent from Jefferson – a minor exaggeration because the Jeffersonian party died in the mid-1820s and the modern party was formed in the 1830s. Jefferson has been commemorated in the names of many counties and schools. Conservative commentator George Will has called Jefferson the “Man of the Millennium” – that is the most influential person in world history over the last 1000 years.

Jefferson's views

Slavery

In Notes on the State of Virginia (1785) Jefferson deplored the despotic, lawless treatment of slaves, suggesting that the only remedy was to emancipate and remove Virginia's slaves and then declare them a free and independent people. Colonization to an unspecified destination was necessary because racial co-existence was impossible; emancipation otherwise would produce “convulsions which will probably never end but in the extermination of one or the other race.” Differences between the two races were “fixed in nature”, he said: :“Comparing them by their faculties of memory, reason, and imagination, it appears to me, that in memory they are equal to the whites; in reason much inferior…and that in imagination they are dull, tasteless, and anomalous.”<ref> Jefferson, ''Notes on the State of Virginia'' ch 14</ref>

Jefferson believed that, eventually, all Americans had to be free. His goals for unlimited national improvement were incompatible with slaves in America. Both slavery and the slave trade would have to be ended in favor of free commerce and free labor. The key word for Jefferson was “amelioration,” and it included several stages of national and moral development. First, Americans would abolish the slave trade. “Citizens,” President Jefferson declared in 1806, should “withdraw . . . from all further participation in those violations of human rights which have been so long continued on the unoffending inhabitants of Africa” to promote “the morality, the reputation, and the best interests of our country.”<ref> “Sixth Annual Message,” December 2, 1806</ref> Second, the owners should raise up the moral and intellectual levels of their slaves. As masters established ties of reciprocal obligation and sympathy with their slaves, they would prepare themselves—and their slaves for the emancipation and repatriation of all Africans back to Africa. He in fact did secure the abolition by Congress of the international slave trade in 1808. He owned slaves–some 200 at one time or another–but despite his theoretical opposition to slavery he was always so much in debt he could never free them.<ref> Christa Dierksheide, “'The great improvement and civilization of that race': Jefferson and the 'Amelioration' of Slavery, ca. 1770–1826,” Early American Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal 6#1 Spring 2008, pp. 165-197. </ref>

Helo and Onuf (2003) have explored the logic of Jefferson's philosophical position against slavery in light of his ownership of slaves and his belief that the wholesale and immediate emancipation of slaves would threaten the new Republic. Heavily influenced by the writings of political philosophers Charles de Montesquieu, Jean-Jacques Burlamaqui, and especially Lord Kames, Jefferson grounded his position regarding slavery on the Kamesian principle that man was capable of moral development and, consequently, moral codes varied among different nations and progressed (or retrograded) over time in each nation. Kames posited that moral progress in a society, however, required a government. These concepts and others helped Jefferson shape his arguments in the Declaration of Independence, as rationale for the American Revolution. Moreover, they were the basis for his belief that slaves should be freed only when they could be assured of having their own government and a means, thereby, of self-determination as well as practical and moral education. Jefferson was convinced that emancipation on a large scale, before Virginia slaveholders and American society as a whole advanced morally, would precipitate racial violence and put the American experiment at risk.<ref>Ari Helo and Peter Onuf, “Jefferson, Morality, and the Problem of Slavery.” William and Mary Quarterly 2003 60(3): 583-614. Issn: 0043-5597 Fulltext: History Cooperative </ref>

Religion

Jefferson was keenly interested in religion. He was raised in the Church of England at a time when it was the established church in Virginia and never formally left the Episcopal Church, and attended church regularly near the end of his life. Despite that, at least one historian who claims that Obama is a Christian nevertheless claims that Jefferson was merely a deist.<ref>David L. Holmes, The Faiths of the Founding Fathers.</ref> Conservative scholars such as David Barton point out how Jefferson was a pious orthodox Christian.<ref>Barton, David. The Jefferson Lies: Exposing the Myths You've Always Believed About Thomas Jefferson (2012, Thomas Nelson)</ref> Liberal publishing houses, such as Oxford University Press, University of Virginia Press, and Yale University Press, typically deny or downplay Jefferson's Christian beliefs.

Jefferson did not believe the words of Jesus or any other part of the Bible to be divinely inspired,<ref>Letter to William Short, August 4, 1820</ref> but he considered Jesus a great moral teacher who created “the most sublime and benevolent code of morals which has ever been offered to man.”<ref>http://www.cooperativeindividualism.org/jefferson_m_03.html</ref> Believing that the doctrines of the historical Jesus had been greatly corrupted by ignorant and superstitious “pseudo-followers,” Jefferson used a razor and a paste to assemble passages from the Synoptic Gospels into a new book commonly called the Jefferson Bible, omitting references to divinity and miracles. However, he did not necessarily agree with everything that remained, writing, “I read [Jesus's doctrines] as I do those of other antient and modern moralists, with a mixture of approbation and dissent.”<ref>Letter to William Short, April 13, 1820</ref>

In an 1803 letter to Dr. Benjamin Rush, Jefferson declared that “I am a Christian,” though his view of Christianity was different from most: <blockquote>I then promised you that one day or other I would give you my views of [the Christian religion]. They are the result of a life of inquiry and reflection, and very different from that anti-Christian system imputed to me by those who know nothing of my opinions. To the corruptions of Christianity I am indeed opposed, but not to the genuine precepts of Jesus himself. I am a Christian, in the only sense in which he wished anyone to be: sincerely attached to his doctrines in preference to all others, ascribing to himself every human excellence, and believing he never claimed any other.<ref>Jefferson, Thomas, April 21, 1803: Letter to Dr. Benjamin Rush://www.angelfire.com/co/JeffersonBible/jeffbsyl.html</ref></blockquote>

He worked tirelessly to create a “wall of separation” between church and state, fearing that unifying the two would create tyranny over the free minds of people. He had a very negative view of the Roman Catholic Church, and succeeded in disestablishing the Anglican Church of England in Virginia during the Revolution.

Jefferson often made references to God and providence. In one of his writings now inscribed on the Jefferson Memorial in Washington, D.C., Jefferson said:

<blockquote>God who gave us life gave us liberty. Can the liberties of a nation be secure when we have removed a conviction that these liberties are the gift of God? Indeed I tremble for my country when I reflect that God is just, that his justice cannot sleep forever.</blockquote>

Jefferson's Second Inaugural Address implied that he believed in divine intervention:<blockquote>“I shall need, too, the favor of that Being in whose hands we are, who led our forefathers, as Israel of old.”</blockquote>

Jefferson was also greatly interested in Eastern religions and Islam. In fact, in 2007, Representative Keith Ellison (the first Muslim elected to Congress) was sworn in on Jefferson's copy of the Koran.<ref>http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/01/03/AR2007010301179.html</ref>

The Right to Bear Arms

“In a nation governed by the people themselves, the possession of arms to defend their nation against usurpers within and without was deemed absolutely necessary. This right is protected by the 2nd Amendment to the Constitution. A gun was an everyday implement in early American society, and Jefferson recommended its use.” <ref>Jefferson on Politics & Government: Civil Rights</ref>

<blockquote>“A strong body makes the mind strong. As to the species of exercises, I advise the gun. While this gives moderate exercise to the body, it gives boldness, enterprise and independence to the mind. Games played with the ball, and others of that nature, are too violent for the body and stamp no character on the mind. Let your gun, therefore, be the constant companion of your walks.” –Thomas Jefferson to Peter Carr, 1785. ME 5:85, Papers 8:407</blockquote>

<blockquote>“The constitutions of most of our States assert that all power is inherent in the people; that… it is their right and duty to be at all times armed.” –Thomas Jefferson to John Cartwright, 1824. ME 16:45</blockquote>

<blockquote>“One loves to possess arms, though they hope never to have occasion for them.” –Thomas Jefferson to George Washington, 1796. ME 9:341</blockquote>

<blockquote>“No freeman shall ever be debarred the use of arms.” – Thomas Jefferson when drafting the Virginia Constitution. The text does not appear in the Virginia Constitution as adopted.<ref>Boyd, Julian P., Charles T. Cullen, John Catanzariti, Barbara B. Oberg, et al, eds. The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1950-. 1:344.</ref></blockquote>

Architecture

Jefferson was the founder of the University of Virginia and designer of his “academical village”; he made the drawings for The Rotunda in 1819. Self-taught in architecture, read widely and studied the great structures of Europe firsthand. He , assisted Pierre L'Enfant in the design and layout of the new Federal City (Washington, D.C.) and designed the state capitol building in Richmond. Jefferson believed that “from architecture would flow education in taste, values, and ideals,” and therefore constructed buildings that became ideas for America.<ref>Jefferson and the Politics of Architecture</ref> <blockquote> Jefferson believed that architecture was the heart of the American cause. In his mind, a building was not merely a walled structure, but a metaphor for American ideology, and the process of construction was equal to the task of building a nation. The architecture of any American building should express the American desire to break cultural–as well as political–ties to Europe. American architecture, Jefferson believed, would embody the fulfillment of the civic life of Americans, and he sought to establish the standards of a national architecture, both aesthetically and politically. </blockquote>

Jefferson was an admirer of Andrea Palladio; the Palladian influece may be seen at Thomas Jefferson's estate Monticello (1768 - 1809).<ref> Famous Buildings In America</ref>

<blockquote> Thomas Jefferson was among the many people who submitted a plan for the White House. His design, however, was not chosen. Instead, James Hoban, an Irish immigrant architect living in Charleston, South Carolina, won the competition and a $500 prize, with a design modeled after Leister House in Dublin, Ireland. <ref>The White House.</ref> </blockquote>

Quotes

  • “I believe that banking institutions are more dangerous to our liberties than standing armies. Already they have raised up a monied aristocracy that has set the government at defiance. The issuing power (of money) should be taken away from the banks and restored to the people to whom it properly belongs.”
  • Speaking of great calamities, “There is yet one greater, submission to a government of unlimited powers.” <ref>The Writings of Thomas Jefferson : 1816-1826.‎ - Page 351 by Thomas Jefferson, Paul Leicester Ford</ref>
  • “That government is best which governs the least, because its people discipline themselves.” <ref name=“Thomas”>Civiliazation's quotes P.240 by Richard Alan Krieger </ref>
  • “Government big enough to give you everything you need is government big enough to take away everything you have.”<ref name=“Thomas”>Civiliazation's quotes P.240 by Richard Alan Krieger]</ref>
  • In a letter to Philips Mazzei, “Timid men prefer the calm of despotism to the tempestuous sea of liberty.” <ref>Jefferson's second revolution P.147 By Susan Dunn</ref>
  • “Let our countrymen know that the people alone can protect us against these evils of misgovernment.” <ref>Thomas Jefferson, world citizen- Page 71 by Elbert Duncan Thomas</ref>

<blockquote> Let me describe to you a man, not yet forty, tall, and with a mild and pleasing countenance. An American, who without ever having quitted his own country, is at once a musician, skilled in drawing, a geometrician, an astronomer, a natural philosopher, legislator, and statesman…. Sometimes natural philosophy, at others politics or the arts, were the topics of our conversation, for no object had escaped Mr. Jefferson; and it seemed as if from his youth he had placed his mind, as he has done his house, on an elevated situation, from which he might contemplate the universe. </blockquote> ::::::: Description of a visit to Thomas Jefferson at Monticello in 1782, from Travels in North-America, in the Years 1780-81-82 by the Marquis de Chastellux. <ref>://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/apr13.html</ref>

  • “Question with boldness even the existence of a god; because, if there be one, he must more approve the homage of reason, than that of blindfolded fear.” <ref>Boyd, Julian P., Charles T. Cullen, John Catanzariti, Barbara B. Oberg, et al, eds. The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1950-. 33 vols.</ref> Though this quotation promotes the challenging of God, it is not necessarily an argument for atheism; Jefferson believed in a non-Christian God.<ref>“Jefferson believed in the existence of a Supreme Being who was the creator and sustainer of the universe and the ultimate ground of being, but this was not the triune deity of orthodox Christianity.” Monticello.org on Jefferson's religious beliefs.</ref>

Fake quotes

Many false quotations have been attributed to Jefferson.<ref> See the 28 fakes listed at Spurious Quotations</ref>

  • Jefferson did NOT say, “A democracy is nothing more than mob rule, where fifty-one percent of the people may take away the rights of the other forty-nine”.
    • Jefferson did write in 1787: “Societies exist under […] governments of force: as is the case in all other monarchies and in most of the other republics. To have an idea of the curse of existence under these last, they must be seen. It is a government of wolves over sheep.”<ref> Jefferson to James Madison, January 30, 1787; Boyd, Julian P., Charles T. Cullen, John Catanzariti, Barbara B. Oberg, et al, eds. The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1950-. 11:92-93</ref>
  • In the 1960s leftwing activists invented another false quote: “Dissent is the highest form of patriotism”.
    • Jefferson did write in 1787: “I hold it that a little rebellion now and then is a good thing, and as necessary in the political world as storms in the physical.”<ref>Jefferson to James Madison, January 30, 1787; Boyd, Julian P., Charles T. Cullen, John Catanzariti, Barbara B. Oberg, et al, eds. The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1950-. 11:92-93</ref>
  • Jefferson did not like banks. He did NOT say, “If the American people ever allow private banks to control the issue of their currency, first by inflation, then by deflation, the banks and corporations that will grow up around them will deprive the people of all property until their children wake up homeless on the continent their Fathers conquered.”
    • Jefferson did say in 1816: “And I sincerely believe, with you, that banking establishments are more dangerous than standing armies; and that the principle of spending money to be paid by posterity, under the name of funding, is but swindling futurity on a large scale.”
  • Jefferson did NOT say, “The democracy will cease to exist when you take away from those who are willing to work and give to those who would not.” He rarely used the word “democracy”.<ref>SeeSpurious Quotations</ref>
    • Jefferson did say: “To take from one, because it is thought that his own industry and that of his fathers has acquired too much, in order to spare to others, who, or whose fathers have not exercised equal industry and skill, is to violate arbitrarily the first principle of association, —the guarantee to every one of a free exercise of his industry, and the fruits acquired by it.” <ref>Lipscomb, Andrew A. and Albert E. Bergh, eds. The Writings of Thomas Jefferson. Washington, D.C.: Thomas Jefferson Memorial Association of the United States, 1903-0; 14:446.</ref>
  • A common misquote incorrectly attributed to Jefferson is, “Where the people fear the government you have tyranny. Where the government fears the people you have liberty.” This was first said by John Basil Barnhill.<ref>Debate on Socialism, Page 34.</ref>
    • Jefferson did write in 1787: “Some are whigs, liberals, democrats, call them what you please. Others are tories, serviles, aristocrats, &c. The latter fear the people, and wish to transfer all power to the higher classes of society; the former consider the people as the safest depository of power in the last resort; they cherish them therefore, and wish to leave in them all the powers to the exercise of which they are competent.”<ref> Jefferson to James Madison, January 30, 1787; Boyd, Julian P., Charles T. Cullen, John Catanzariti, Barbara B. Oberg, et al, eds. The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1950-. 11:92-93</ref>

See also

Further reading

  • Banning, Lance. The Jeffersonian Persuasion: Evolution of a Party Ideology (1978) excerpt and text search
  • Bernstein, Richard B. Thomas Jefferson (2005) short biography excerpt and text search
  • Channing, Edward. The Jeffersonian System, 1801-1811 (1906) full text online* Cunningham, Noble E. Jr . In Pursuit of Reason: The Life of Thomas Jefferson (1988, short biography) excerpt and text search
  • Ellis, Joseph J. American Sphinx: The Character of Thomas Jefferson (1998), interpretive essays excerpt and text search
  • Ferling, John. Adams vs. Jefferson: The Tumultuous Election of 1800 Oxford University Press, 2004 online edition
  • Hofstadter, Richard. The American Political Tradition (1948), chapter on TJ online at ACLS e-books
  • Koch, Adrienne. Philosophy of Thomas Jefferson. (1943) online edition
  • Onuf, Peter S. The Mind of Thomas Jefferson. (2007). 281 pp.
  • Onuf, P. S. “Jefferson, Thomas (1743–1826)”, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, (2004; online edn, May 2008; Onuf is a leading American scholar
  • Peterson, Merrill D. The Jefferson Image in the American Mind (1960) excerpt and text search
  • Peterson, Merrill D. Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation: A Biography (1986), long, detailed biography by leading scholar; online edition; also excerpt and text search
  • Peterson, Merrill D. ed. Thomas Jefferson: A Reference Biography. (1986), very good, encyclopedic essays
  • Smelser, Marshall. The Democratic Republic: 1801-1815 (1968) good one-volume history of TJ's presidency and Madison's;

Primary sources

  • Jefferson, Thomas. Writings (1984, Library of America); includes Autobiography, Notes on the State of Virginia, Public and Private Papers, Addresses and Letters. 1600pp excerpt and text search
  • Jefferson, Thomas. Political Writings, edited by Joyce Appleby and Terence Ball; Cambridge University Press, 1999 online edition
  • Jefferson, Thomas. Jeffersonian Cyclopedia 9000 quotes, well arranged online

References

Quotations

“The Constitution of most of our states (and of the United States Constitution) assert that all power is inherent in the people; that they may exercise it by themselves; that it is their right and duty to be at all times armed.” - Thomas Jefferson

“For a people who are free, and who mean to remain so, a well-organized and armed militia is their best security.” - Thomas Jefferson


See also Founding Fathers, Benjamin Franklin, Declaration of Independence, Constitution, Bill of Rights, Second Amendment


}} Thomas Jefferson (April 13 <small>&#91;O.S. April 2&#93;</small>&nbsp;1743&nbsp;– July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father, the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776) and the third President of the United States (1801–1809). He was a spokesman for democracy and the rights of man with worldwide influence. At the beginning of the American Revolution, he served in the Continental Congress, representing Virginia and then served as a wartime Governor of Virginia (1779–1781). Just after the war ended, from mid-1784 Jefferson served as a diplomat, stationed in Paris. In May 1785, he became the United States Minister to France.

Jefferson was the first United States Secretary of State (1790–1793) serving under President George Washington. In opposition to Alexander Hamilton's Federalism, Jefferson and his close friend, James Madison, organized the Democratic-Republican Party, and subsequently resigned from Washington's cabinet. Elected Vice President in 1796, when he came in second to President John Adams of the Federalists, Jefferson opposed Adams and with Madison secretly wrote the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which attempted to nullify the Alien and Sedition Acts.

Elected president in what Jefferson called the Revolution of 1800, he oversaw the purchase of the vast Louisiana Territory from France (1803), and sent the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–1806) to explore the new west. Jefferson is considered a primary architect of American expansionism; the United States having doubled in size during his presidency. His second term was beset with troubles at home, such as the failed treason trial of his former Vice President Aaron Burr. With escalating trouble with Britain who was challenging American neutrality and threatening shipping at sea, he tried economic warfare with his embargo laws which only damaged American trade. In 1803, President Jefferson initiated a process of Indian tribal removal and relocation to the Louisiana Territory west of the Mississippi River, in order to open lands for eventual American settlers. In 1807 he drafted and signed into law a bill banning the importation of slaves into the United States.

A leader in the Enlightenment, Jefferson was a polymath who spoke five languages and was deeply interested in science, invention, architecture, religion and philosophy and was an active member and eventual president of the American Philosophical Society. These interests led him to the founding of the University of Virginia after his presidency. He designed his own large mansion on a 5,000 acre plantation near Charlottesville, Virginia, which he named Monticello and the University of Virginia building. While not a notable orator, Jefferson was a skilled writer and corresponded with many influential people in America and Europe throughout his adult life.

After Martha Jefferson, his wife of eleven years, died in 1782, Jefferson kept his promise to her that he would never remarry. Their marriage had produced six children, of whom two survived to adulthood.

As long as he lived, Jefferson expressed opposition to slavery, yet, he owned hundreds of slaves and freed only a few of them. Since his own day, controversy has ensued over allegations that he fathered children by his slave, Sally Hemings; DNA tests in 1998, together with historical research, suggest he fathered at least one. Although he has been criticized by many present-day scholars over the issues of racism and slavery, Jefferson remains rated as one of the greatest U.S. presidents.

Early life and career

The third of ten children, Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13, 1743 (April 2, 1743 OS) at the family home in Shadwell, Goochland County, Virginia, now part of Albemarle County.<ref>Malone, 1948, pp. 3, 430</ref> His father was Peter Jefferson, a planter and surveyor.<ref>Malone, 1948, p. 4</ref> He was of possible Welsh descent, although this remains unclear.<ref name=Malone5-6>Malone, 1948, pp. 5-6</ref> His mother was Jane Randolph, daughter of Isham Randolph, a ship's captain and sometime planter. Peter and Jane married in 1739.<ref>Malone, 1948, pp. 13-14</ref> Thomas Jefferson showed little interest in learning about his ancestry; he only knew of the existence of his paternal grandfather.<ref name=Malone5-6/>

Before the widower William Randolph, an old friend of Peter Jefferson, died in 1745, he appointed Peter as guardian to manage his Tuckahoe Plantation and care for his four children. That year the Jeffersons relocated to Tuckahoe, where they lived for the next seven years before returning to Shadwell in 1752. Peter Jefferson died in 1757 and the Jefferson estate was divided between Peter's two sons; Thomas and Randolph.<ref>Malone, 1948, pp. 31-33</ref> Thomas inherited approximately

of land, including Monticello and between 20 and 40 slaves. He took control of the property after he came of age at 21. The precise amount of land and number of slaves that Jefferson inherited is estimated. The first known record Jefferson made in regards to slave ownership, was in 1774, when he owned 41.<ref>Malone, 1948, pp. 4<37-440</ref>

Education

Jefferson began his childhood education under the direction of tutors at Tuckahoe along with the Randolph children.

In 1752, Jefferson began attending a local school run by a Scottish Presbyterian minister. At the age of nine, Jefferson began studying Latin, Greek, and French; he learned to ride horses, and began to appreciate the study of nature. He studied under Reverend James Maury from 1758 to 1760 near Gordonsville, Virginia. While boarding with Maury's family, he studied history, science and the classics.<ref>Peterson, 1970, pp. 7–9</ref>

At age 16, Jefferson entered the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, and first met the law professor George Wythe, who became his influential mentor. He studied mathematics, metaphysics, and philosophy under Professor William Small, who introduced the enthusiastic Jefferson to the writings of the British Empiricists, including John Locke, Francis Bacon, and Isaac Newton.<ref>Peterson, Merrill D. ed. Thomas Jefferson: Writings. New York: Library of America, p. 1236.</ref> He also improved his French, Greek, and violin. A diligent student, Jefferson displayed an avid curiosity in all fields<ref>Thomas Jefferson on Wine by John Hailman, 2006</ref> and graduated in 1762, completing his studies in only two years. Jefferson read law while working as a law clerk for Wythe. During this time, he also read a wide variety of English classics and political works. Jefferson was admitted to the Virginia bar in 1767.<ref>Peterson, 1970, pp. 9-12</ref>

Throughout his life, Jefferson depended on books for his education. He collected and accumulated thousands of books for his library at Monticello. When Jefferson's father Peter died Thomas inherited, among other things, his large library.

A significant portion of Jefferson's library was also bequeathed to him in the will of George Wythe, who had an extensive collection. After the British burned the Library of Congress in 1814 Jefferson offered to sell his collection of more than six thousand books to the Library of Congress for $23,950. After realizing he was no longer in possession of such a grand collection he wrote in a letter to John Adams, “I cannot live without books”. He intended to pay off some of his large debt, but immediately started buying more books.<ref name=“Liggio”/> In February 2011 the New York Times reported that a part of Jefferson's retirement library, containing 74 volumes with 28 book titles, was discovered at Washington University in St. Louis.<ref name=“RobertsNYT”/> In honor of Jefferson's contribution, the library's website for federal legislative information was named THOMAS.<ref name=“RobertsNYT”>NY Times: A Founding Father's Books Turn Up</ref><ref>Ellis @ LOC: American Sphinx</ref>

Marriage and family

After practicing as a circuit lawyer for several years, Jefferson married the 23-year-old widow Martha Wayles Skelton on January 1, 1772. Martha Jefferson was attractive, gracious and popular with her friends; she was a frequent hostess for Jefferson and managed the large household. They had a happy marriage. She read widely, did fine needle work and was an amateur musician. Jefferson played the violin and Martha was an accomplished piano player. It is said that she was attracted to Thomas largely because of their mutual love of music.<ref>Halliday, 2009 pp.48–52</ref> <ref>Peterson, 1970 p.27</ref> During the ten years of their marriage, Martha bore six children: Martha, called Patsy, (1772–1836); Jane (1774–1775); an unnamed son (1777); Mary Wayles, called Polly, (1778–1804); Lucy Elizabeth (1780–1781); and Lucy Elizabeth (1782–1785). Only Martha and Mary survived to adulthood.<ref name=“Martha”>White House Archives</ref> After her father John Wayles died in 1773, Martha and her husband Jefferson inherited his 135 slaves,

and the debts of his estate. These took Jefferson and other co-executors of the estate years to pay off, which contributed to his financial problems. Later in life, Martha Jefferson suffered from diabetes and ill health, and frequent childbirth further weakened her. A few months after the birth of her last child, Martha died on September 6, 1782, at the age of 33. Jefferson was at his wife's bedside and was distraught after her death. In the following three weeks, Jefferson shut himself in his room, where he paced back and forth until he was nearly exhausted. Later he would often take long rides on secluded roads to mourn for his wife.<ref name=“Martha”/><ref name=Halliday48-53>Halliday, 2009, pp.48–53</ref> As he had promised his wife, Jefferson never remarried.

Monticello

In 1768, Jefferson began construction of his primary residence, Monticello, (Italian for “Little Mountain”) on a hilltop overlooking a 5,000 acre plantation.

Construction was done mostly by local masons and carpenters, assisted by Jefferson's slaves. Jefferson moved into the South Pavilion (an outbuilding) in 1770, where his new wife, Martha, joined him in 1772. Turning Monticello into a neoclassical masterpiece after the Palladian style would be his continuing project.<ref>

</ref>

In 18th century colonial Virginia there were no architecture schools, so Jefferson learned the trade on his own from various books and by studying some of the various classical architectural designs of the day. His “bible” was Andrea Palladio's The Four Books of Architecture, which taught him the basic principles of classical design.<ref>Brodie, 1974, pp.87–88</ref><ref>Bernstein, 2003, p. 9</ref> While Minister to France during 1784–1789, Jefferson had opportunity to see some of the classical buildings with which he had become acquainted from his reading, as well as to discover the “modern” trends in French architecture then fashionable in Paris. In 1794, following his service as Secretary of State (1790–93), he began rebuilding Monticello based on the ideas he had acquired in Europe. The remodeling continued throughout most of his presidency (1801–09). The most notable change was the addition of the octagonal dome.<ref>Bernstein, 2003, p. 109</ref><ref> Thomas Jefferson Foundation accounts: ''Monticello, the House''</ref>

Lawyer and House of Burgesses

Jefferson studied law in colonial Virginia from 1768 to 1773 with his friend and mentor, George Wythe.<ref name=“HSR 47”>Henry Stephens Randall, The Life of Thomas Jefferson. p 47</ref> Jefferson's client list featured members of Virginia's elite families, including members of his mother's family, the Randolphs.<ref name=“HSR 47”/> Following his study with George Wythe, Jefferson was admitted to the bar of the General Court of Virginia in 1767 and then lived with his mother at Shadwell. His practice took him up and down the Valley from Staunton to Winchester.<ref>Meacham, Jon. Thomas Jefferson: the art of power. 2012 ISBN 978-1-4000-6766-4. p. 39.</ref> It was while he was at Shadwell that he lost his library, legal papers and notes for the coming legal term to a fire. He was desperate, even frantic, but George Wythe consoled him with a line from Virgil, “Carry on, and preserve yourselves for better times.” <ref>Meacham, Jon. 2012, p. 45-47.</ref>

Beside practicing law, Jefferson represented Albemarle County in the Virginia House of Burgesses beginning on May 11, 1769 and ending June 20, 1775.<ref>Library of Congress: Jefferson Timeline</ref> Though inheriting 150 slaves from his father, Jefferson proved more willing to reform Virginia's slavery in his early career than later when he became an embodiment of slave-holding interest in the new republic. In 1769 he made one effort to enact enabling legislation for the masters' “permission of the emancipation of slaves.” thus taking away the discretion in each case from the royal Governor and his General Court. It was rejected, and although Jefferson had persuaded his cousin Richard Bland to take the lead, the reaction in the House was conclusive. Jefferson recalled Bland was “treated with the grossest indecorum.”<ref>Meacham, Jon. 2012, p. 47-49.</ref>

As a lawyer, Jefferson was closely involved with and took on a number of freedom suits for slaves seeking their freedom.<ref>Gordon-Reed, 2008, p. 348</ref> He took the case of Samuel Howell v. Wade Netherland. Howell was the grandson of a white woman and a black man who sued that he should be freed immediately, not waiting until the statutory age of emancipation at thirty-one for such a mixed-race case. Jefferson made a natural-law argument, “everyone comes into the world with a right to his own person and using it at his own will … This is what is called personal liberty, and is given him by the author of nature, because it is necessary for his own sustenance.” Jefferson lost the case.<ref>Meacham, Jon. 2012, p. 49</ref>

While smallpox inoculation was still discouraged in many of the colonies including Virginia, the procedure was brought to Norfolk County, Virginia, and it resulted in riots in 1768 and again in 1769. Jefferson agreed to defend the victims, including Dr. Archibald Campbell, whose house had been burned as a result of the inoculations carried out there. Jefferson, who had been inoculated himself in Philadelphia at age 23, would give up his law practice before the case was resolved, but he later served on the General Assembly committee proposing to reduce the 1769 restrictions on smallpox inoculation.<ref>Thomas Jefferson Encyclopedia, “Inoculation”. Viewed January 25, 2014.</ref>

Following the passage of the Intolerable Acts by the British Parliament in 1774, Jefferson wrote a set of resolutions against the acts. These were later expanded into A Summary View of the Rights of British America, in which he expressed his belief that people had the right to govern themselves.<ref name=“Peterson”>Merrill D. Peterson, “Jefferson, Thomas”; American National Biography Online, February 2000.

</ref>

Political career from 1775 to 1800

''The Declaration of Independence'',
Facsimile copy of 1823 />

Declaration of Independence

:

Jefferson served as a delegate to the Second Continental Congress beginning in June 1775, soon after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War. He didn't know many people in the Congress, but sought out John Adams who, along with his cousin Samuel, had emerged as a leader of the convention.

Jefferson and Adams established a friendship that would last the rest of their lives; it led to the drafting of Jefferson to write the declaration of independence. When Congress began considering a resolution of independence in June 1776, Adams ensured that Jefferson was appointed to the five-man committee to write a declaration in support of the resolution.<ref>Maier, 1997, pp.97–105</ref> After discussing the general outline for the document, the committee decided that Jefferson would write the first draft. The committee in general, and Jefferson in particular, thought Adams should write the document. Adams persuaded the committee to choose Jefferson, who was reluctant to take the assignment, and promised to consult with the younger man. Over the next seventeen days, Jefferson had limited time for writing and finished the draft quickly.<ref>Maier, 1997, p.104</ref> Consulting with other committee members, Jefferson also drew on his own proposed draft of the Virginia Constitution, George Mason's draft of the Virginia Declaration of Rights, and other sources. The other committee members made some changes. Most notably Jefferson had written, “We hold these truths to be sacred and un-deniable…” Franklin changed it to, “We hold these truths to be self-evident.”

A final draft was presented to the Congress on June 28, 1776. The title of the document was “A Declaration by the Representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress assembled.”<ref>Becker, 1970, p. 4</ref>

Jefferson viewed the Independence of the American people from the mother country Britain as breaking away from “parent stock”, and that the War of Independence from Britain was a natural outcome of being separated by the Atlantic Ocean.<ref name=Hellenbrand_p70>Hellenbrand (1990), The Unfinished Revolution: Education and Politics in the Thought of Thomas Jefferson, p. 70</ref> Jefferson viewed English colonists were compelled to rely on “common sense” and rediscover the “laws of nature”.<ref name=Hellenbrand_p70/> According to Jefferson, the Independence of the original British colonies was in a historical succession following a similar pattern when the Saxons colonized Britain and left their mother country Europe hundreds of years earlier.<ref name=Hellenbrand_p70/>

After voting in favor of the resolution of independence on July 2, Congress turned its attention to the declaration. Over three days of debate, Congress made changes and deleted nearly a fourth of the text, most notably a passage critical of the slave trade.

While Jefferson resented the changes, he did not speak publicly about the revisions. On July 4, 1776, the Congress ratified the Declaration of Independence and the delegates signed the document. The Declaration would eventually be considered one of Jefferson's major achievements; his preamble has been considered an enduring statement of human rights.<ref>Ellis, 1996, p. 50</ref> All men are created equal has been called “one of the best-known sentences in the English language”,<ref>Stephen E. Lucas, “Justifying America: The Declaration of Independence as a Rhetorical Document”, in Thomas W. Benson, ed., American Rhetoric: Context and Criticism, Carbondale, Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press, 1989, p. 85</ref> containing “the most potent and consequential words in American history”.<ref>Ellis, 2008, pp. 55-56</ref> The passage came to represent a moral standard to which the United States should strive. This view was notably promoted by Abraham Lincoln, who based his philosophy on it, and argued for the Declaration as a statement of principles through which the United States Constitution should be interpreted.<ref name=“McPherson126”>McPherson, Second American Revolution, 126.</ref>

Virginia state legislator and Governor

of Jefferson by Robert Field (1800)]] After Independence, Jefferson returned to Virginia and was elected to the Virginia House of Delegates for Albemarle County.

Before his return, he commented on the drafting of the state's constitution; he continued to support freehold suffrage, by which only property holders could vote.

He served as a Delegate from September 26, 1776 – June 1, 1779, as the war continued. Jefferson wanted to abolish primogeniture and provide for general education, which he hoped to make the basis of “republican government.”

He also wanted to disestablish the Anglican church in Virginia, but this was not done until 1786, while he was in France as US Minister.

After Thomas Ludwell Lee died in 1778 Jefferson was given the task of studying and revising the state's laws. Jefferson drafted 126 bills in three years, including laws to establish fee simple tenure in land and to streamline the judicial system. In 1778, Jefferson's “Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge” and subsequent efforts to reduce control by clergy led to some small changes at William and Mary College, but free public education was not established until the late nineteenth century.

In 1779, at Jefferson's behest, William and Mary appointed his mentor George Wythe as the first professor of law in an American university.

In 1779, at the age of thirty-six, Jefferson was elected Governor of Virginia by the two houses of the legislature.<ref name=“Liggio”>Liggio 1999, Vol. II, No. 1 part 3</ref> The term was then for one year, and he was re-elected in 1780. As governor in 1780, he transferred the state capital from Williamsburg to Richmond. Jefferson served as a wartime governor, as the united colonies continued the Revolutionary War against Great Britain. In late 1780, as Governor he prepared Richmond for attack by moving all military supplies to a foundry located five miles outside of town. In January 1781 General Benedict Arnold learned of the transfer and captured the foundry during his invasion of Richmond. Jefferson called for the Virginia militia to defend the city, but by the time the defense led by Sampson Mathews arrived, it was too late to prevent the siege.<ref>Waddell, 1902, p. 278</ref> Jefferson evacuated Richmond as the armies engaged.

In early June 1781, Cornwallis dispatched a 250-man cavalry force commanded by Banastre Tarleton on a secret expedition to capture Governor Jefferson and members of the Assembly at Monticello<ref name=“Liggio”/> but Jack Jouett of the Virginia militia thwarted the British plan by warning them. Jefferson escaped to Poplar Forest, his plantation to the west. Jefferson believed his gubernatorial term had expired in June, and he spent much of the summer with his family at Poplar Forest.<ref>Jouett's Ride</ref> His tenure as governor in general, and his decision to flee the capital in particular, was heavily criticized at the time, and has been criticized by historians ever since.

The members of the General Assembly had quickly reconvened in June 1781 in Staunton, Virginia across the Blue Ridge Mountains. They voted to reward Jouett with a pair of pistols and a sword, but considered an official inquiry into Jefferson's actions, as they believed he had failed his responsibilities as governor. Jefferson was not re-elected.

Notes on the State of Virginia

In 1780, Jefferson as governor received numerous questions about Virginia from French diplomat François Barbé-Marbois, who was gathering pertinent data on the United States. Jefferson turned his written responses to Marbois into a book, Notes on the State of Virginia (1785). In a course of five years, Jefferson compiled the book; he included a discussion of contemporary scientific knowledge, and Virginia's history, politics, laws and ethnography and also extensive notes on the geography of rivers, lakes and mountains. Jefferson was aided by Thomas Walker, George R. Clark, and geographer Thomas Hutchins. The book was first published in France in 1785 and in England in 1787.<ref>Shuffelton. “Introduction” in Notes on the State of Virginia Thomas Jefferson, (1999)</ref> The book is Jefferson's argument about what constitutes a good society, which he believed was incarnated by Virginia. It also included extensive data about the state's natural resources and its economy. He wrote extensively about slavery, miscegenation, and his belief that blacks and whites could not live together as free people in one society because of lingering resentments over slavery, fearing that it would lead to the “extermination of the one or the other race”.<ref>Notes on the State of Virginia, p. 149</ref><ref>Burstein, 2006, p. 146</ref> He also expressed that “Those who labor in the earth are the chosen people of God, if ever he had chosen a people.”<ref>Notes on the State of Virginia, p. 176</ref><ref>Nash, Russell, Hodges, 2012, p. 46</ref> In 1785 Jefferson's Notes

was anonymously published in Paris in a limited edition of a few hundred copies. Its first public English-language edition, issued by John Stockdale in London, appeared in 1787.<ref>Bernstein, 2004, p. 78</ref> The book was later edited and published by Jefferson's grandson and executor, Jefferson W. Randolph in 1853.'<ref>Notes on the State of Virginia, pp. ii, 275</ref>

Member of Congress

Following its victory in the Revolutionary War and peace treaty with Great Britain in 1783, the United States formed a Congress of the Confederation (informally called the Continental Congress), to which Jefferson was appointed as a Virginia delegate. As a member of the committee formed to set foreign exchange rates, he recommended that American currency should be based on the decimal system; his plan was adopted. Jefferson also recommended setting up the Committee of the States, an idea he introduced back in 1776 to be used when Congress was in recess,<ref>Peterson, 1970, p. 275</ref> intended to function as the executive arm of Congress. However when Congress adjourned the following June the Committee assembled to perform their duties but within two months were quarrelling amongst themselves and divided into two parties. By this time Jefferson was in France and having learned of the ordeal spoke to Franklin who compared the Committee to a needed light house and its members to a raging sea, rendering it inaccessible and hence dysfunctionable.<ref>Rayner, 1834 p.207</ref>

In the 1783-84 session of the Continental Congress Jefferson acted as chairman of several important committees for purposes of establishing a viable system of government for the new Republic, playing a central role advancing policy for the settlement of the western territories. Jefferson was the principle author of the Land Ordinance of 1784 where Virginia ceded the vast area it owned northwest of the Ohio River to the national government. He insisted this territory not be used as colonial territory by any of the thirteen states, but rather that it be divided into sections where each could eventually become states.<ref name=Stewart39>Stewart, 1997, p. 39</ref> He plotted borders for nine new states in its initial stages and also wrote an ordinance banning slavery in all the nation's territories. Congress made extensive revisions in the text among which the ban was originally rejected. Jefferson thought that Congress had “mutilated” his work, but outnumbered he accepted the changes.<ref name=Peretson189>Peterson, 1960, pp. 189-190</ref><ref>Finkelman, 1989 pp.21–51</ref> The provisions for ban on slavery were eventually modified and implemented three years later in the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 and became the fundamental law for the entire Northwest. The ban came to be known as the Jefferson Priviso which was later hailed by the famous abolitionist Salmon P. Chase.<ref name=Peretson189/>

Minister to France

]]

Considered a brilliant statesman, Jefferson was sent by his fellow Congressmen to Europe to join Benjamin Franklin and John Adams as ministers for purposes of negotiating commercial trade agreements with England, Spain and France. Since Jefferson's wife Martha had died two years previous, friends noted that the widower Jefferson seemed so depressed that he might be suicidal and believed that sending him to France would also take his mind off his wife's death.<ref>Peterson, 1970, pp. 289–294</ref> Jefferson was glad to accept and resigned from the Continental Congress on May 11, 1784 and returned to Monticello and began making preparations for his assignment abroad, which lasted five years. Taking his young daughter Patsy and two servants

they departed from Boston on July 5, 1784 and sailed to Paris, arriving there on August 6.<ref name=Stewart39/> During his nineteen-day voyage en route to France Jefferson taught himself how to read and write Spanish.<ref>Hyland, 2009 p.xviii</ref> Franklin resigned as Minister to France in March 1785 where Jefferson was appointed his successor.<ref name=Stewart39/>

Still in his 40s, Jefferson was minister to France from 1785 to 1789, the year the French Revolution started. Months before Jefferson assumed the role as Minister to France he arrived in Paris on August 6, 1784 and four days later rode out to Passy to greet his old friend Benjamin Franklin.<ref>Randall, 1994 p.372</ref> When the French foreign minister, the Count de Vergennes, commented to Jefferson, “You replace Monsieur Franklin, I hear,” Jefferson replied, “I succeed him. No man can replace him.”<ref name=“Hale119”>Hale, 1896 p.119</ref><ref>Randall, 1994 p.400</ref> Jefferson attended the ceremony held at Passy bidding farewell to Franklin, who departed for the United States on July 12, 1785.<ref>Parton, 1874 p.649</ref>

Though France was at the brink of revolution, Jefferson's tenure there was generally an uneventful one. He often found it difficult to fill the shoes of his predecessor Benjamin Franklin, who at the time was one of the most famous people in the world.<ref>Peterson, 1970, pp.382–387</ref> He enjoyed the architecture, arts, and the salon culture of Paris. He often dined with many of the city's most prominent people, and stocked up on wines to take back to the US.<ref>Lawrence S. Kaplan, Jefferson and France: An Essay on Politics and Political Ideas, Yale University Press, 1980

</ref> While in Paris, Jefferson corresponded with many people who had important roles in the imminent French Revolution. These included the Marquis de Lafayette, and the Comte de Mirabeau, a popular pamphleteer who repeated ideals that had been the basis for the American Revolution.<ref>Antonina Vallentin, Mirabeau, trans. E. W. Dickes, The Viking Press, 1948, p. 86.</ref><ref>“Author of the Book: Comte de Mirabeau.” isthisjefferson.org Accessed 1 February 2013.</ref> While in Paris he wrote a letter to Edward Carrington expressing some of these ideals he held regarding the natural tendencies of government and its relationship to the people: <center>“the natural process of things is for liberty to yield, and government to gain ground..”<ref>Jay Nock, Jefferson (1926). p.100</ref><ref>Peterson, 1960 p.413</ref><ref>Mayer, 1994, Introduction</ref></center>

Jefferson's eldest daughter Martha, known as Patsy, went with him to France in 1784. His two youngest daughters were in the care of friends in the United States.<ref name=“Liggio”/> To serve the household, Jefferson brought some of his slaves, including James Hemings, who trained as a French chef for his master's service. Jefferson's youngest daughter Lucy died of whooping cough in 1785 in the United States, and he was bereft.<ref name=“nps”/> In 1786, Jefferson met and fell in love with Maria Cosway, an accomplished Italian-English artist and musician of 27. They saw each other frequently over a period of six weeks. A married woman, she returned to Great Britain, but they maintained a lifelong correspondence.<ref name=“nps”>NPS</ref> In 1787, Jefferson sent for his youngest surviving child, Polly, then age nine. He requested that a slave accompany Polly on the transatlantic voyage. By chance, Sally Hemings, a younger sister of James, was chosen; she lived in the Jefferson household in Paris for about two years.

Secretary of State

In September 1789, Jefferson returned to the US from France with his two daughters and slaves. Immediately upon his return, President Washington wrote to him asking him to accept a seat in his Cabinet as Secretary of State. Jefferson accepted the appointment.

As Washington's Secretary of State (1790–1793), Jefferson argued with Alexander Hamilton, the Secretary of the Treasury, about national fiscal policy,<ref>Pearson, Ellen Holmes. “Jefferson versus Hamilton.” Teachinghistory.org. Accessed 14 July 2011.</ref> especially the funding of the debts of the war. Jefferson later associated Hamilton and the Federalists with “Royalism,” and said the “Hamiltonians were panting after … crowns, coronets and mitres.”

On May 23, 1792, Jefferson wrote a letter to President Washington describing the political alignments that were visible in the young nation. He urged the president to rally the citizenry in a party that would defend democracy against the corrupting influence of banks and monied interests. Historians recognize this letter as a milestone that defined the founding principles of today’s Democratic Party.<ref>William Greider (1992) Who Will Tell The People. Simon & Schuster. New York NY. p. 246. ISBN 0-671-68891-X.</ref> Due to their opposition to Hamilton, Jefferson and James Madison organized and led the anti-administration party (called Republican, and known later as Democratic-Republican). He worked with Madison and his campaign manager John J. Beckley to build a nationwide network of Republican allies. Jefferson's political actions and his attempt to undermine Hamilton nearly led Washington to dismiss Jefferson from his cabinet. Although Jefferson left the cabinet voluntarily, Washington never forgave him for his actions, and never spoke to him again.<ref name=Chernow427>Chernow, 2004, p. 427</ref>

Before the [[Jay Treaty />

, blockading British frigates<ref>HMS Thetis is here pictured capturing two French merchants while on blockade duty. She later captured the U.S. merchant Caroline, see List of ships captured in the 18th century</ref> captured U.S. merchants trading with France while Jefferson was Secretary of State]] Yet, according to one account, an earlier private dinner on June 20, 1790 that Jefferson hosted with Hamilton and Madison in New York City “brokered one of the great political deals in American history.” Under the terms of this agreement, the nation's capital would be located on the Potomac River, and the federal government would assume the huge war debts of all 13 states.<ref name=Goodheart>

</ref>

The French minister said in 1793: “Senator Morris and Secretary of the Treasury Hamilton … had the greatest influence over the President's mind, and that it was only with difficulty that he [Jefferson] counterbalanced their efforts.”<ref>Elkins, Stanley and Eric McKitrick (1995). The Age of Federalism New York: Oxford University Press, p. 344.</ref> Jefferson supported France against Britain when they fought in 1793.<ref>“Foreign Affairs,” in Peterson, ed. Thomas Jefferson: A Reference Encyclopedia (1986) p 325</ref> Jefferson believed that political success at home depended on the success of the French army in Europe.

In 1793, the French minister Edmond-Charles Genêt caused a crisis when he tried to influence public opinion by appealing to the American people, something which Jefferson tried to stop.

In the same year, it became clear how Thomas Jefferson deplored the exceeding violence in the aftermath of the French Revolution. This was the time where republicanism was at a crossroad, reflected in his letter exchange with William Short.<ref>Thomas Jefferson on the French Revolution Library of Congress, Series I, Reel 17. Retrieved 6 January 2013.</ref>

During his discussions with George Hammond, first British Minister to the U.S. from 1791, Jefferson tried to achieve three important goals: secure British admission of violating the Treaty of Paris (1783) ; vacate their posts in the Northwest (the territory between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River north of the Ohio); and compensate the United States to pay American slave owners for the slaves whom the British had freed and evacuated at the end of the war. After failing to gain agreement on any of these, Jefferson resigned in December 1793.<ref>Miller, 1994, p.117</ref>

Jefferson retired to Monticello, from where he continued to oppose the policies of Hamilton and Washington. The Jay Treaty of 1794, led by Hamilton, brought peace and trade with Britain

while Madison, with strong support from Jefferson, wanted “to strangle the former mother country” without going to war. “It became an article of faith among Republicans that 'commercial weapons' would suffice to bring Great Britain to any terms the United States chose to dictate.”<ref>Miller, 1963, p. 149</ref> Even during the violence of the Reign of Terror in France, Jefferson refused to disavow the revolution because “To back away from France would be to undermine the cause of republicanism in America.”<ref>Yarbrough, 2006, p. xx</ref>

Election of 1796 and Vice Presidency

As the Democratic-Republican (then called Republican) presidential candidate in 1796, Jefferson lost to John Adams, but had enough electoral votes to become Vice President (1797–1801). After the election he had hoped to forego the swearing in ceremony which to him seemed monarchical but was advised to go through with it so as not to draw criticism. Hoping to arrive at Philadelphia for the ceremony unnoticed he was instead greeted by a crowd of cheering supporters and a brass band. Unlike then Vice President Adams did before him, who threw himself into the middle of the debates, Jefferson instead let the Senate conduct their own debates and confined his activity to deciding issues of procedure which resulted in a position that was “honorable and easy” for him. One of the chief duties of a Vice President is presiding over the Senate, and Jefferson was concerned about its lack of rules leaving decisions to the discretion of the presiding officer. Years before holding his first office, Jefferson had spent much time researching procedures and rules for governing bodies. As a student he had studied parliamentary law and procedure for almost forty years, and had transcribed notes on parliamentary law into a manual which he would later call his Parliamentary Pocket Book, making him very qualified to preside over the Senate.<ref>Bernstein, 2003, pp. 117-118</ref> Jefferson had also served on the committee appointed to draw up the rules of order for the Continental Congress in 1776. As Vice President, he was ready to reform Senatorial procedures.

The new U.S. clashed at sea with both Britain and France. Here a battle in the [[Quasi-War />

with France prompting the Alien and Sedition Acts]] With the Quasi-War underway, the Federalists under John Adams started rebuilding the military, levied new taxes, and enacted the Alien and Sedition Acts. Jefferson believed that these acts were intended to suppress Democratic-Republicans rather than dangerous enemy aliens, although the acts were allowed to expire. Jefferson and Madison rallied opposition support by anonymously writing the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which formed the basis of State's rights, declaring that the federal government had no right to exercise powers not specifically delegated to it by the states.<ref name=“Primary Documents, Alien and Sedition Acts”>Library of Congress: Alien and Sedition Acts</ref> Though the resolutions followed the “interposition” approach of Madison, Jefferson advocated nullification. At one point he drafted a threat for Kentucky to secede.

Jefferson's biographer Dumas Malone argued that had his actions become known at the time, Jefferson might have been impeached for treason.<ref name=“Chernow586”>Chernow, 2004, 1928 p.586</ref>

In writing the Kentucky Resolutions, Jefferson warned that, “unless arrested at the threshold,” the Alien and Sedition Acts would “necessarily drive these states into revolution and blood.”<ref name=“Chernow586”/> The historian Ron Chernow says, “[H]e wasn't calling for peaceful protests or civil disobedience: he was calling for outright rebellion, if needed, against the federal government of which he was vice president.”<ref name=“Chernow587”>Chernow, 2004, 1928 p.587</ref>

Chernow believes that Jefferson “thus set forth a radical doctrine of states' rights that effectively undermined the constitution.” He argues that neither Jefferson nor Madison sensed that they had sponsored measures as inimical as the Alien and Sedition Acts.<ref name=“Chernow587”/> The historian Garry Wills argued, “Their nullification effort, if others had picked it up, would have been a greater threat to freedom than the misguided [alien and sedition] laws, which were soon rendered feckless by ridicule and electoral pressure.”<ref>Wills, Gary. “James Madison”. p49</ref> The theoretical damage of the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions was “deep and lasting, and was a recipe for disunion”. George Washington was so appalled by them that he told Patrick Henry that if “systematically and pertinaciously pursued”, they would “dissolve the union or produce coercion.”<ref name=“Chernow587”/> The influence of Jefferson's doctrine of states' rights reverberated to the Civil War and beyond.<ref name=“Knott p48”>Knott. “Alexander Hamilton and the Persistence of Myth”. p48</ref> <ref name=“Chernow551”>Chernow, 2004 p.551</ref> According to Chernow, during the Quasi-War, Jefferson engaged in a “secret campaign to sabotage Adams in French eyes.”<ref name=“Chernow551”/> In the spring of 1797, he held four confidential talks with the French consul Joseph Letombe. In these private meetings, Jefferson attacked Adams, predicted that he would only serve one term, and encouraged France to invade England. Jefferson advised Letombe to stall any American envoys sent to Paris by instructing them to “listen to them and then drag out the negotiations at length and mollify them by the urbanity of the proceedings.” This toughened the tone that the French government adopted with the new Adams Administration. Due to pressure against the Adams Administration from Jefferson and his supporters, Congress released the papers related to the XYZ Affair, which rallied a shift in popular opinion from Jefferson and the French government to supporting Adams.<ref name=“Chernow551”/>

Presidency

Election of 1800 and first term

Thomas Jefferson took the oath of office on March 4, 1801, at a time when partisan strife between the Democratic-Republican and Federalist parties was growing to alarming proportions. He had worked closely with Aaron Burr, and after rallying support for his party Jefferson, along with Burr, received votes from a majority of the electors, but Jefferson and Burr were tied (the electoral voting at the time did not disinguish between President and Vice President). Therefore, the election was decided in the outgoing Congress, by the Federalist-dominated House of Representatives.

Though the Federalists wanted neither Jefferson nor Burr to be president, Hamilton convinced his party that Jefferson would be a lesser political evil than Burr and that such scandal within the electoral process would undermine the new constitution.

In 1801 Jefferson negotiated with a moderate Federalist representative from Delaware, James Asheton Bayard II, through Maryland representative, Samuel Smith, to secure Bayard's support in breaking the electoral college deadlock.<ref>Wood, 2010, pp.285, 383</ref>

On February 17, 1801, after thirty-six ballots, the House elected Jefferson President and Burr Vice President. Jefferson owed his election victory to the South's inflated number of Electors, which counted slaves under the three-fifths compromise.<ref name=History>Huffington Post, July 18, 2009</ref><ref name=NPR/>

He was sworn in by Chief Justice John Marshall at the new Capitol in Washington DC. In contrast to the preceding president John Adams, Jefferson exhibited a dislike of formal etiquette. Unlike Washington, who arrived at his inauguration in a stagecoach drawn by six cream colored horses, Jefferson arrived alone on horseback without guard or escort. He was dressed in plain attire and, after dismounting, retired his own horse to the nearby stable.<ref>Hale, 1896 Illustrious Americans p.124</ref>

When Jefferson assumed office he was facing an 83 million dollar national debt.<ref>Whellan, 2003, p. 3</ref> Regarded by his supporters as the 'People's President' news of Jefferson's election was well received in many parts of the new country and was marked by celebrations throughout the Union. After his election some of his political opponents referred to him as the “Negro President”, with critics like the Mercury and New-England Palladium of Boston stating that Jefferson had the gall to celebrate his election as a victory for democracy when he won “the temple of Liberty on the shoulders of slaves.”<ref name=NPR>Thomas Jefferson, the 'Negro President', Garry Wills on The Tavis Smiley Show, February 16, 2004.</ref> As a result of his two predecessors' administrations, as well as the state of events in Europe, Jefferson inherited the presidency with relatively few urgent problems.

During Jefferson's first term of Republican governance he immediately began to dismantle Hamilton's Federalist fiscal system claiming that “if this administration shall not reduce taxes, they never will be permanently reduced.”<ref>Stevens, 1898, p. 188</ref> He began by eliminating the whiskey excise and all other federal internal taxes, claiming that closing “unnecessary offices”, cutting “useless establishments and expenses” allowed for the discontinuation of internal taxes.<ref>Wood, 2010, p. 293</ref><ref>Bailey, 2007, p. 216</ref> Jefferson and his administration also attempted to dismantle the national bank fearing its central role in increasing the national debt, along with much of the Navy as being unnecessary during peacetime, opting instead to building only gunboats for harbor and river defenses, but was only partially successful.<ref>Chernow, 2004, p. 671</ref>

Administration, Cabinet and Supreme Court appointments

(1805)|alt=Painting of Jefferson wearing fur collar by Rembrandt Peale, 1805]]

Judicial appointments

States admitted to the Union

  • Ohio – March 1, 1803

As president, Jefferson used his influence to bring Ohio into the Union on April 30, 1802, the first state under the Northwest Ordinance prohibiting slavery. In Congress, Jefferson had authored the Ordinance of 1787 in Congressional committee under the Articles of Confederation. He was therefore instrumental in prohibiting slavery not only to new territories, but in the new states to come beginning with Ohio.<ref>Coles, Edward. Ordinance of 1787, 1856. Hist. Society of Pennsylvania, p.29. viewed July 5, 2013.</ref>

First Barbary War

The First Barbary War was the only declared war that occurred during Jefferson's two terms as president and it marked the first war the United States engaged in on foreign soil and seas. With the government still recovering from the political division that occurred under John Adams, Jefferson's focus was on political reconciliation between the rival Republicans and Federalists. Subsequently Jefferson made no statements regarding foreign policy during his inauguration speech and gave no indication that he would soon be embarking on a war in North Africa against the Barbary Corsairs.<ref>Wheelan, 2003, pp.1-2</ref>

For decades, North African pirates had been capturing American merchant ships, pillaging valuable cargoes and enslaving crew members, demanding huge ransoms for their release.<ref name=Barnes36>Fremont-Barnes, 2006, p. 36</ref> Before Independence, American merchant ships were protected from the Barbary pirates by the naval and diplomatic influence of Great Britain—protection which came to end after the colonies won their independence.<ref>Fremont-Barnes, 2006, p. 32</ref> Jefferson had opposed paying tribute to the Barbary states since as far back as 1785.<ref name=Barnes36/>

Shortly after the American Revolution began, American ships were protected by the 1778 alliance with France, which required the French nation to protect “American vessels and effects against all violence, insults, attacks …”.<ref>Wheelan, 2003, pp. 79-80</ref> On December 20, 1777, Morocco's Sultan Mohammed III declared that the American merchant ships would be under the protection of the sultanate and could thus enjoy safe passage into the Mediterranean and along the coast.<ref>Nanjira, 2010, p. 208</ref>

Upon independence the United States now had to protect its own merchant vessels. At this time the United States was paying $80,000 to the Barbary States as a 'tribute' for protection against piracy, as did Britain and France. After Tripoli made new demands on the new President for an immediate sum of $225,000 and an annual payment of $25,000, President Jefferson refused and at that point decided it would be easier to fight the pirates than give into their continuing demands. As a result the pasha of Tripoli declared war on the United States on May 10, 1801 and the First Barbary War began.<ref>Mariner's Museum: The Barbary Wars, 1801-1805</ref> Before being elected President, Jefferson had opposed funds for a Navy to be used for anything more than a coastal defense, but the continued pirate attacks on American shipping interests in the Atlantic and Mediterranean and the systematic kidnapping of American crew members could no longer be ignored.

On May 15 Jefferson's cabinet voted unanimously to send three frigates and a schooner to the Mediterranean with orders to make a show of force but opt for peace; if a state of war existed they could use their own discretion. The frigates were the famous USS ''Philadelphia'', USS ''President'' and the USS ''Essex'' along with the schooner USS ''Enterprise'' and became the first American naval squadron to cross the Atlantic. Under the command of Commodore Richard Dale, the squadron sailed into the Mediterranean on July 1 where it stopped at Gibraltar for supplies and information. Here Dale learned that Tripoli had already declared war upon the United States.<ref>Guttridge, 2005 pp.257–260</ref> Jefferson and the young American navy forced Tunis and Algiers into breaking their alliance with Tripoli which ultimately moved it out of the war. Jefferson also ordered five separate naval bombardments of Tripoli, which restored peace in the Mediterranean for a while,<ref>Bernstein. 2003, p. 146</ref> although Jefferson continued to pay the remaining Barbary States until the end of his presidency.<ref>US Gov: Barbary Wars</ref>

Louisiana Purchase

In 1803, in the midst of the Napoleonic wars between France and Britain, Thomas Jefferson authorized the Louisiana Purchase, a major land acquisition from France that doubled the size of the United States. Yellow fever had taken a tremendous toll on the French army in the Caribbean and realizing that Britain had a superior naval force and would soon capture the territory Napoleon was compelled to sell it to the United States, keeping it out of British hands.<ref name=Rodriguez97/> Having also lost the revenue potential of Haiti, while escalating his wars against the rest of Europe, Napoleon gave up on an empire in North America and used the purchase money to help finance France's war campaign on its home front,

<ref name=Rodriguez97/>

Jefferson had sent James Monroe and Robert R. Livingston to Paris in 1802 to arrange the purchase the city of New Orleans and adjacent coastal areas, with the assistance of French nobleman Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours, a friend and close ally of Jefferson. Napoleon offered to sell the entire Territory for a price of $15 million, which Treasury Secretary Albert Gallatin financed easily through New England banks. The purchase was without explicit Constitutional authority, but most contemporaries thought that this opportunity was exceptional and could not be missed.<ref name=“The Rise of American Democracy”>Wilentz, 2005, p. 108</ref> In the face of criticism from some of Jefferson's other contemporaries Secretary of State James Madison gave his assurances that the Purchase was well within even the strictest interpretation of the Constitution. The Senate quickly ratified the treaty, and the House, immediately authorized funding.<ref name=Rodriguez97>Rodriguez, 2002, p.97</ref> The Purchase proved to be one of the largest fertile tracts of land on the planet, and it marked the end of French imperial ambitions in North America which were potentially in conflict with American expansion west; France was removed as a threat to the United States.<ref name=Ellis208>Ellis, 2008, p. 208</ref>

On December 20, 1803 the French flag was lowered in New Orleans and the U.S. flag raised, symbolizing the transfer of the Louisiana territory from France to the United States.<ref name=Ellis208/><ref name=“Key Events, Jefferson”>Miller Center: Key Events' Thomas Jefferson</ref> The entire territory was not finally secured until England and Mexico gave up their claims to northern and southern portions, respectively, during the presidency of James Polk (1845–1849).

While the 1803 Louisiana Purchase was a great achievement of the Jefferson administration, domestically it was complicated by the establishment of pre-existing French slaveholders from modern Illinois to Missouri to Louisiana. Faced with the option to confiscate the slaves of French nationals, Jefferson chose to answer English and Spanish objections to the sale by quickly incorporating resident settlers politically into U.S. territories. Jefferson's failure to tamper with preexisting conditions led to criticism for his having allowed slavery to continue in the newly acquired territory, and the adoption of the Code Napoleon in the New Orleans Territory that would become the state of Louisiana. Since the Purchase historians have differed in their assessments regarding constitutional and slavery issues. Jefferson is considered historically as a major architect of American expansionism. <ref name=Malone_DOAB_p21>Malone, 1933, p 21</ref>

Lewis and Clark Expedition

After the purchase of the Louisiana Territory, Jefferson now needed to have this mostly unknown part of the continent explored and mapped for expanding westward settlement and trade. In 1804 he appointed his personal secretary Meriwether Lewis, along with William Clark, as leaders of the expedition, dubbing it the Corps of Discovery, which would explore this territory and beyond, which came to produce a wealth of scientific and geographical knowledge.<ref name=“Ambrose76”>Ambrose, 1996 p.76</ref><ref>Rodriguez, 2002 pp.112, 186</ref>

Two years into his presidency, Jefferson with the influence from various members of the American Philosophical Society persuaded Congress to fund an expedition to explore and map the newly acquired territory of the Louisiana Purchase to the Pacific Ocean. Making no attempt to hide the Expedition from Spanish, French, and British officials he instead claimed different reasons for the venture. After conferring with Treasury Secretary Albert Gallatin about requesting funds for the expedition Jefferson was advised to make such request via a secret message due to poor relations with the opposition party in Congress.<ref>Rodriguez, 2002 pp.xxiv, 162, 185</ref><ref>Ambrose, 1996 pp.78, 83</ref>

Jefferson was influenced by exploration accounts of both Captain James Cook's A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean (1784), and Le Page du Pratz'z The History of Louisiana … (1763). He considered it important for the United States to establish a claim of “Discovery” to the Pacific Northwest and Oregon territory by documenting and establishing an American presence there before Europeans made any claims.<ref>Ambrose, 1996, pp. 154, 450</ref> Hoping to find a long-sought-for Northwest Passage to the Pacific Jefferson believed such a passage would greatly promote commerce and trade for the country.<ref name=“Ambrose, 1996, p. 418”>Ambrose, 1996, p. 418</ref> Knowledge of the western continent was limited to what had been learned from trappers, traders and explorers. Jefferson chose Lewis to lead the expedition rather than someone with only the best scientific credentials because of Lewis’ military experience in the woods and “familiarity with the Indian manners and character, requisite for this undertaking.” In the months leading up to the expedition, Jefferson tutored Lewis in the sciences of mapping, botany, natural history, mineralogy and astronomy/navigation. Lewis demonstrated a marked capacity to learn.<ref name=“Ambrose76”/> In his library at Monticello Jefferson possessed the largest collection of books in the world on the subject of the geography and natural history of the North American continent, along with an impressive collection of maps, and gave Lewis full access to that library.<ref>Ambrose, 1996, pp. 54, 80</ref> Jefferson also introduced Lewis to the American Philosophical Society and connected him with Caspar Wistar, the famed botanist Benjamin Smith Barton and mathematics professor Robert Patterson and Dr. Benjamin Rush all of whom offered their expertise to Lewis, Jefferson and his proposed expedition.<ref>Ambrose, 1996, pp. 91, 102</ref><ref>Thomas Jefferson Foundation accounts: ''Benjamin Smith Barton''</ref><ref>Thomas Jefferson Foundation accounts: ''The American Philosophical Society and Western Exploration''</ref> Lewis and Clark recruited a company of 45 men and spent a winter preparing near St. Louis.<ref name=“Woodger150”>Woodger, Toropov, 2009 p.150</ref>

Guided by Sacagawea and various Native-American tribes along the way, the expedition reached the Pacific Ocean by November 1805 and returned in 1806, successfully adding a wealth of scientific and geographical knowledge of the vast territory, along with knowledge of the many Indian tribes with whom Jefferson hoped to develop trade.<ref>Fritz, 2004, p. 3</ref> The expedition was considered a success with the loss of only one life because of illness. The duration of this perilous expedition lasted from May 1804 to September 1806,<ref>Ambrose, 1996, Chap.VI</ref> and it led the way for the Oregon Trail.<ref>Ambrose, 1996, p.483</ref> Two months after the expedition's end Jefferson made his first public statement to Congress giving a one sentence summary about its success before asserting the justification for the expenses involved.<ref name=“Ambrose, 1996, p. 418”/> At the conclusion of the Expedition the American Philosophical Society ultimately became the repository for many of its findings, including seeds, fossils, plant and other specimens along with the original journals and logs that were authored by Lewis, Clark and other members of the expedition.<ref name=JeffAPS>Thomas Jefferson Foundation accounts: ''American Philosophical Society''</ref><ref name=“Ambrose, 1996, p. 126”>Ambrose, 1996, p. 126</ref>

<center>See also: Timeline of the Lewis and Clark Expedition</center>

Portrait of Jefferson by [[Thomas Sully />

at West Point</center>]]

West Point

Ideas for a national institution for military education were circulated during the American Revolution. In May 1801 the Secretary of War Henry Dearborn announced that the president had appointed Major Jonathan Williams, grandnephew of Benjamin Franklin, to direct organizing to establish such a school.

Following the advice of George Washington, John Adams, Alexander Hamilton and others,

<ref>Behn, Richard J. The American Founders and the American University 2002 ://www.lehrmaninstitute.org/education/essays4.html</ref> in 1802 Jefferson and Congress agreed to authorize the funding and construction of the United States Military Academy at West Point on the Hudson River in New York.

On March 16, 1802, Jefferson signed the Military Peace Establishment Act, directing that a corps of engineers be established and “constitute a Military Academy.” The Act would provide well-trained officers for a professional army. On July 4, 1802, the US Military Academy at West Point formally started as an institution for scientific and military learning.

Native American policy

As governor of Virginia (1780–1781) during the Revolutionary War, Jefferson recommended forcibly moving Cherokee and Shawnee tribes that fought on the British side to lands west of the Mississippi River. Later, as president, Jefferson proposed in private letters beginning in 1803 a policy that under Andrew Jackson would be called Indian removal, under an act passed in 1830.<ref name=“Miller2008”/> As president, he made a deal with elected officials of the state of Georgia: if Georgia would release its legal claims to “discovery” in lands to its west, the U.S. military would help expel the Cherokee people from Georgia. His deal violated an existing treaty between the United States government and the Cherokee Nation, which guaranteed its people the right to their historic lands.<ref name=“Miller2008”>Miller, 2008 p.90</ref> Jefferson believed that Natives should give up their own cultures, religions, and lifestyles to assimilate to western European culture and a European-style agriculture, which was more efficient.<ref name=“Miller2008”/> He believed that assimilation of Native Americans into the European-American economy would make them more dependent on trade, and that they would eventually be willing to give up land that they would otherwise not part with, in exchange for trade goods or to resolve unpaid debts.<ref name=letterharrison1803>Jefferson letter to Harrison</ref> In keeping with his trade and acculturation policy, Jefferson kept Benjamin Hawkins as Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Southeastern peoples, who became known as the Five Civilized Tribes for their adoption of European-American ways.

Jefferson believed assimilation was best for Native Americans; second best was removal to the west. He felt the worst outcome of the cultural and resources conflict between European Americans and Native Americans would be their attacking the whites.<ref>Bernard W. Sheehan, Seeds of Extinction: Jeffersonian Philanthropy and the American Indian (1974) pp 120–21</ref> He told his Secretary of War, General Henry Dearborn (Indian affairs were then under the War Department): “if we are constrained to lift the hatchet against any tribe, we will never lay it down until that tribe is exterminated, or driven beyond the Mississippi.”<ref>Moore, 2006, p. 10</ref> With the colonial and native civilizations in collision, compounded by British incitement of Indian tribes and mounting hostilities between the two peoples, Jefferson's administration took quick measures to avert another major conflict. His deal with Georgia was related to later measures to relocate the various Indian tribes to points further west.<ref name=“Miller2008”/>

Burr - duel and treason

On July 11, 1804, Vice President Aaron Burr mortally wounded Federalist Party leader Alexander Hamilton, George Washington's former Secretary of Treasury, in a duel at Weehawken, New Jersey.<ref name=Banner_p34>Banner (1972), p. 34</ref> Hamilton had been a key factor in Burr's defeat in running for the Governor of New York.<ref name=Banner_p34/> Hamilton had made callous remarks regarding Burr. Believing his honor had been offended, Burr had challenged Hamilton to a duel. Burr was indicted for Hamilton's murder in New York and New Jersey causing him to flee to Georgia, although he remained President of the Senate during Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase's impeachment trial. The two Burr indictments were “quietly allowed to die”.<ref name=Banner_p34/> President Jefferson casually acknowledged Hamilton in a letter to his daughter three days after Hamilton's funeral. Hamilton had been Jefferson's primary political enemy for fourteen years.<ref name=Chernow_p714>Chernow (2004), p. 714</ref>

After Aaron Burr was disgraced in the duel of 1804 and his own presidential ambitions were ended, he was reported by the British Ambassador as wanting to “effect a separation of the western part of the United States [at the Appalachian Mountains]”. Jefferson believed that to be so by November 1806 because Burr had been rumored to be variously plotting with some western states to secede for an independent empire, or to raise a filibuster to conquer Mexico. At the very least, there were reports of Burr’s recruiting men, stocking arms and building boats. New Orleans seemed especially vulnerable, but at some point the American general there, James Wilkinson, a double agent for the Spanish, decided to turn on Burr. Jefferson issued a proclamation warning that there were U.S. citizens illegally plotting to take over Spanish holdings. Though Burr was nationally discredited, Jefferson feared for the very Union. In a report to Congress January 1807, Jefferson declared Burr’s guilt “placed beyond question.” By March 1807 Burr was arrested in New Orleans and placed on trial for treason in Richmond, Virginia, with Chief Justice John Marshall presiding. The weak government case led to Burr’s acquittal, but Burr was never able to mount another adventure.<ref>Meacham, Jon. “Thomas Jefferson: the art of power” 2012 Random House ISBN 978-1-4000-6766-4, p.405, 419-422.</ref>

Election of 1804 and second term

Because of his success and popularity during his first term Jefferson was nominated by the Republican congressional caucus in February 1804 for a second term as president.<ref>Meacham, Jon; 2012, p. cxxxvi</ref> For Jefferson’s second term, Burr was replaced as Jefferson’s running mate following Burr's duel with and subsequent death of Hamilton in July 1804. Jefferson offered no testimonial or wrote any letter of tribute for Hamilton, his political enemy, and believed a “dignified silence” was best at this time. Jefferson chose George Clinton, also of New York but without the usual gentry family and connections. The Federalist caucus ran Charles Cotesworth Pinckney of South Carolina, who had been John Adam’s vice presidential candidate four years before. Jefferson-Clinton won overwhelmingly 162 electoral college votes to 14, running on issues of lower taxes, booming prosperity and the Louisiana Purchase.<ref>Meacham, Jon; 2012, pp. 403-406</ref>

The domestic political split in Jefferson’s own party came from fellow Virginian John Randolph of Roanoke in March 1806. Jefferson and Madison backed resolutions to limit or ban British imports in retaliation for British depredations against American shipping. Jefferson’s Secretary of Treasury proposed spending $20 million in roads and canals in infrastructure, leading to the National Road west from Maryland. Randolph held that Jefferson had gone too far in a Federalist direction, building a congressional caucus of “Quids”, from Latin tertium quid, “a third something”, calling for a purity in republican principles and roundly denouncing both Jefferson and Madison.<ref>Meacham, Jon; 2012, pp. 415-417</ref>

Jefferson's popularity further suffered in his second term due to problems related to wars in Europe. Relations with Great Britain had always been bad, due partly to the violent personal antipathy between Jefferson and the British Ambassador, Anthony Merry. After Napoleon's decisive victory at the Battle of Austerlitz in 1805, Napoleon became much more aggressive in his negotiations over trading rights, and American efforts failed. Jefferson responded with the Embargo Act of 1807, directed at both France and Great Britain. This triggered economic chaos in the US and was strongly criticized at the time, resulting in Jefferson abandoning the policy a year later.<ref>Malone, 1974, p. 98</ref>

Following the Revolution all the states abolished the international slave trade, but South Carolina had reopened it. Jefferson awaited the results of his second term mid-term elections, and on his annual message of December 1806 he denounced the “violations of human rights” attending the international slave trade, calling on the newly elected Congress to criminalize it on the first day possible.<ref>

</ref> In 1807, congress passed the Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves, which Jefferson signed into effect January 1, 1808.<ref name=“miller145”>Miller, 1980 pp.145–146</ref><ref name=“Randal583”>Randall, 1994 p.583</ref> While the act established severe punishment against the international trade, it did not regulate the domestic slave trade.

Chesapeake–Leopard Affair

Jefferson tried to prepare for war following the HMS Leopard attack on the USS ''Chesapeake'' off the Virginia coast in June 1807. He issued a proclamation banning armed British ships from entering U.S. waters. He then unilaterally without Congressional prior approval called on the governors of the states to prepare quotas for a total of 100,000 militia, and he ordered purchase of arms, ammunition and supplies. Said the former Virginia governor who had fled Tarlton without calling out Virginia militia during the Revolution, “The laws of necessity, of self-preservation, of saving our country when in danger, are of higher obligation [than strict observance of written laws]“. The USS Revenge sent to receive an answer from the British government was itself fired upon, including its passenger, Vice President George Clinton. July 31, 1807 Jefferson called for a special session of Congress in October to prepare for war, embargo or do nothing. Jefferson hoped for embargo.<ref>Meacham, Jon; 2012, pp. 425-429</ref>

In December news arrived of Napoleon extending the Berlin Decree banning British imports everywhere, including the U.S. In Britain, George III ordered redoubling efforts at impressment including American sailors. But war fever of the summer had faded, Congress was in not in a mood to prepare the U.S. for war. Jefferson asked for and received the Embargo Act, the least bad option for him, and it gained time for building up defensive works, militias and naval forces. Legislation passed December 1807, a projection of power and enforcement which historian Jon Meacham called surpassing even the hated Alien and Sedition Acts. Downturning economic consequences especially in New England and widespread negative reaction led to an end to the embargo in time for Jefferson's Secretary of State James Madison to win the 1808 presidential election.<ref>Meacham, Jon; 2012, pp.429-431</ref>

Embargo

Avoiding national humiliation on the one hand, and war on the other, Jefferson encouraged passage of the Embargo Act of 1807 to maintain American neutrality in the Napoleonic Wars under France’s Continental System. In the event, he got both war and national humiliation; the economy of the entire Northeast suffered severely, Jefferson was vehemently denounced, and his party lost support. Instead of retreating, Jefferson sent federal agents to secretly track down smugglers and violators.<ref>Tucker, 1992 ch.23</ref><ref>James Duncan Phillips, “Jefferson's 'Wicked Tyrannical Embargo,” New England Quarterly Vol. 18, No. 4 (Dec., 1945), pp. 466–478 in JSTOR</ref> Jefferson's Secretary of the Treasury Albert Gallatin had been against the embargo, foreseeing correctly the impossibility of enforcing the policy and the negative public reaction.<ref name=adams>"Gallatin to Jefferson, December 1807" Vol.1, p.368</ref> The embargo was a financial disaster because the Americans could not export, while widespread disregard of the law meant federal enforcement was difficult. For the most part, it effectively throttled American overseas trade. All areas of the United States suffered.<ref>Dungan, 2010, p. 81</ref> Shortly before leaving office in March 1809, Jefferson signed the repeal of the disastrous Embargo. In its place the Non-Intercourse Act was enacted, but it proved no more effective than the Embargo. The government found it was impossible to prevent American vessels from trading with the European belligerents once they had left American ports. Jefferson believed the problem was the traders and merchants, who showed a lack of self-sacrificing “republican virtue” by not complying with it.<ref>Burton Spivak, Jefferson's English Crisis: Commerce, Embargo, and the Republican Revolution (1978) ch 1</ref> He later maintained that, had the embargo been widely observed it would have avoided war in 1812.<ref>Merwin, 1901 p.142</ref><ref>Peterson, 1960 pp.289–290</ref>

Historians have generally criticized Jefferson for his embargo policy. Doron Ben Atar argued that Jefferson's commercial and foreign policies were misguided, ineffective and harmful to American interests.<ref>Doron S. Ben-Atar, The Origins of Jeffersonian Commercial Policy and Diplomacy (1993) as cited in Cogliano, p 250</ref> The War of 1812 was considered the logical extension of his embargo and that, by entering the Napoleonic Wars on anti-British side, the United States gave up the advantages of neutrality.<ref>Kaplan, 1957, pp.196-217</ref>

Other involvements

He pardoned several people imprisoned under the Alien and Sedition Acts, passed in John Adams' term. He repealed the Judiciary Act of 1801, which removed nearly all of Adams' “midnight judges” from office. This quickly led to the Supreme Court deciding the important case of Marbury v. Madison. This also repealed a provision in the act that freed supreme court justices from having to constantly travel the country to serve as circuit court judges. This provision wasn't reinstated for another century, and its repeal under Jefferson ensured that justices would continue to bear heavy travel burdens throughout the nineteenth century. Jefferson also signed into law a bill that officially segregated the US postal system by not allowing blacks to carry mail.

<ref>John Hope Franklin, Race and History: Selected Essays 1938–1988 (Louisiana State University Press: 1989) p. 336 and John Hope Franklin, Racial Equality in America (Chicago: 1976), p. 24-26</ref>

American Philosophical Society

Founded in 1743 by Benjamin Franklin, Jefferson was a member of the American Philosophical Society for 35 years. Through the Society he advanced the sciences and Enlightenment ideals, emphasizing that knowledge of science reinforced and extended freedom.<ref name=Hayes432>Hayes, 2008, p. 432</ref> He was elected into the Society in January 1780 while Governor of Virginia and the following year was elected a Counsellor. During his long tenure he served on many committees. He was elected as the Society's third President on March 3, 1797 only days after he was elected Vice President under Adams.<ref name=JeffAPS>Thomas Jefferson Foundation: American Philosophical Society</ref><ref name=Berstein118>Bernstein, 2003, pp.118-119</ref> Upon his acceptance Jefferson stated:<center> I feel no qualification for this distinguished post but a sincere zeal for all the objects of our institution<br> and an ardent desire to see knowledge so disseminated through the mass of mankind <br>that it may at length reach even the extremes of society, beggars and kings.<ref name=Hayes432/><ref name=Berstein118/></center> Jefferson presided over the Society's meeting for the first time during that same month.<ref name=Nash142>Nash, Hodges, Russell, 2012, p. 142</ref> During this time he was compiling data for his Notes on the State of Virginia which he later shared with the Society. Jefferson served as the Society's president for the next eighteen years through both terms of his presidency.<ref name=JeffAPS/> Along with topics on science and discovery, he often discussed ideas of abolition with dedicated abolitionist Society members including Comte de Volney and Tadeusz Kosciuszko.<ref name=Nash142/><ref>Storozynski, 2009, p. 232</ref> Jefferson also introduced Meriwether Lewis to the society and to various scientists who offered their expertise and tutored him in preparation for the Lewis and Clark Expedition.<ref name=JeffAPS/><ref name=“Ambrose, 1996, p. 126”/> He offered his letter of resignation on three separate occasions, including when the government moved from Philadelphia to Washington and when he finally retired to Monticello a great distance away from the “seat of the meetings” in Philadelphia, with the Society refusing his resignations each time, but he remained active through correspondence. He attended his last Society meeting in person on May 2, 1800. The Society finally accepted his resignation at the meeting of January 20, 1815 “with great reluctance”. After Jefferson's death in 1826 the Society draped the chair he had occupied in black for six months.<ref name=JeffAPS/>

Political philosophy and views

Jefferson idealized the independent yeoman as the best exemplar of republican virtues, distrusted cities and financiers, and often favored decentralized power, but he suspended some of his general principles when he governed, as at the Louisiana Purchase. He called for a wall of separation between church and state at the federal level having had supported efforts to disestablish the Church of England,

and authored the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom.<ref>Mayer, 1994 p.76</ref> His Jeffersonian democracy and Democratic-Republican Party became dominant in early American politics. Jefferson's republican political principles were strongly influenced by the 18th-century British opposition writers of the Whig Party, as well as John Locke, Francis Bacon, and Isaac Newton.<ref>Pocock, 1975, p.17</ref>

Society and government

, Jefferson wrote of faith in humanity and the nature of democracy.|alt=Jefferson's 1818 letter to Mordecai Manuel Noah]]

Jefferson believed that each man has “certain inalienable rights” and “Rightful liberty is unobstructed action according to our will within limits drawn around us by the equal rights of others…”<ref>Letter to Isaac H. Tiffany, April 4, 1819 in Appleby and Ball (1999) p 224.</ref> A proper government, for Jefferson, is one that not only prohibits individuals in society from infringing on the liberty of other individuals, but also restrains itself from diminishing individual liberty as a protection against tyranny from the majority.<ref>Mayer, 1994 p.328</ref> Influenced by Isaac Newton, Jefferson considered social systems as analogous to physical systems. In the social world, Jefferson likens love to a force similar to gravity in the physical world. People are naturally attracted to each other through love, but dependence corrupts this attraction and results in political problems. Removing or preventing corrupting dependence by banking or royal influences would enable men to be equal in practice.<ref name=Wood220-227/>

In political terms, Americans thought that virtue was the “glue” that held together a republic, whereas patronage, dependency and coercion held together a monarchy. “Virtue” in this sense was public virtue, in particular self-sacrifice. Americans reasoned that liberty and republicanism required a virtuous society, and the society had to be free of dependence and extensive patronage networks, such as banking, government, or military.<ref>Wood, 2010, pp. 95–99</ref> While Jefferson believed most persons could not escape corrupting dependence, the franchise should be extended only to those who could, including the yeoman farmer. He disliked inter-generational dependence, such as national debt and unalterable governments.<ref name=Wood220-227/> On the issue of individual liberties, Jefferson believed they were the fruit of equality and believed government to be the only permanent danger to them.<ref>Peterson, 1960 p.340</ref> Excesses of democracy for Jefferson were caused by institutional corruptions rather than human nature. He remained less suspicious of working democracy than many of his contemporaries.<ref name=Wood220-227>Wood, 2010, pp. 220-227</ref>

As president, Jefferson tried to re-create the balance between the states and federal government as it existed under the Articles of Confederation. He tried to shift the balance of power back to the states, taking this action from his classical republican conception that liberty could only be retained in small, homogeneous societies. He believed that the Federalist system enacted by Washington and Adams had encouraged corrupting patronage and dependence.<ref name=Wood220-227/> Many of Jefferson's apparent contradictions can be understood within this philosophical framework. For example, his intent to deny women the franchise was rooted in his belief that a government must be controlled by the economically independent. He opposed women's participation in politics, saying that “our good ladies … are contented to soothe and calm the minds of their husbands returning ruffled from political debate.”<ref>Richard B. Morris, Seven Who Shaped Our Destiny (1973), p. 133</ref>

Democracy

Jefferson is often cited as an important figure in early American democracy.<ref>Peterson, 1960, p. 68</ref><ref>Rouhollah K. Ramazani, ed. The future of liberal democracy: Thomas Jefferson and the contemporary world (2004)

</ref> Jefferson envisioned democracy as an expression of society as a whole, and that he called for national self-determination, cultural uniformity, and education of all the people (or all the males, as he believed at the time). His emphasis on uniformity did not envision a multiracial republic in which some groups were not fully assimilated into the identical republican values. Onuf argues that Jefferson was unable and unwilling to abolish slavery until such a demand could issue naturally from the sensibilities of the entire people.<ref>Peter Onuf, in John B. Boles, Randal L. Hall, eds. Seeing Jefferson Anew: In His Time and Ours (University of Virginia Press, 2010).

</ref> Gordon Wood argues that Jefferson's philosophy of liberty personified American ideals.<ref>Wood, 2010, p. 277</ref> Jefferson believed that public education and a free press were essential to a democratic nation: “If a nation expects to be ignorant and free it expects what never was and never will be….The people cannot be safe without information. Where the press is free, and every man able to read, all is safe”.<ref>Thomas Jefferson to Charles Yancey, 1816, Jefferson, The Jeffersonian Cyclopedia (1900) pp 605, 727</ref>

Banks

First Bank of U.S., Philadelphia, 1791-1811
throughout Jefferson's two administrations />

Jefferson expressed a dislike and distrust for banks and bankers and opposed borrowing from them because he believed it created long-term debt as well as monopolies, and inclined the people to dangerous speculation, as opposed to productive labor on the farm.<ref name=autogenerated3>Donald F. Swanson, “Bank-Notes Will Be But as Oak Leaves”: Thomas Jefferson on Paper Money,” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 1993, Vol. 101 Issue 1, pp 37–52</ref> He once argued that each generation should pay back its debt within 19 years, and not impose a long-term debt on subsequent generations.

In 1791, President Washington asked Jefferson, who at the time was Secretary of State and Alexander Hamilton, the Secretary of the Treasury, if the Congress had the authority to create a national bank. While Hamilton believed Congress had the authority, Jefferson believed that a national bank in its capacity would ignore the needs of individuals and small farmers and was unconstitutional, assuming powers not granted to the federal government by the States and was therefore in violation of the Tenth Amendment, maintaining it violated the laws of Mortmain, Alienage, Forfeiture, Distribution and Monoploles.<ref>Jefferson, 1829 pp.536–537</ref><ref>Jefferson, 1900 p.68</ref><ref>Bailey, 2007 p.82</ref> Jefferson along with his cohorts James Madison and William Giles accused Hamilton of maladministration in the duties of his office and for borrowing funds from European banks to support the national bank at the behest and interest of unscrupulous speculators, but his prolonged attempts to undermine Hamilton's efforts nearly led Washington to relieve Jefferson from his cabinet. After much deliberation Jefferson was unable to substantiate the accusations levied at Hamilton.<ref>Chernow, 2004 pp.425–427</ref> Jefferson also opposed the bank loans that financed the War of 1812, fearing it would compromise the war effort and plunge the nation into serious long term debt.<ref name=autogenerated3 />

He was indifferent with many of his fellow tobacco planters however, as they felt that banks were needed to finance the purchase of new land and new slaves, and support commerce.<ref>A. Glenn Crothers, "Banks and economic development in post-revolutionary Northern Virginia, 1790–1812</ref> Jefferson often attacked banks, paper money and borrowing as inimical to Republicanism;<ref>Peterson, 1986 pp 435–36; 700–701</ref> in retirement in 1816, he wrote John Taylor: :::The system of banking we have both equally and ever reprobated. I contemplate it as a blot left in all our constitutions, which,<br>if not covered, will end in their destruction, which is already hit by the gamblers in corruption, and is sweeping away in its<br> progress the fortunes and morals of our citizens. And I sincerely believe, with you, that banking establishments are more<br>dangerous than standing armies; and that the principle of spending money to be paid by posterity, under the name of funding,<br>is but swindling futurity on a large scale. – Thomas Jefferson – Letter to John Taylor, May 26, 1816 <ref>Jefferson, 1829 pp.285–288</ref><ref>Thomas Jefferson, Political writings (1999) ed. by Joyce Appleby and Terence Ball, p. 206-7</ref></center>

Foreign policy

In the decades after the Revolutionary War, Jefferson considered Britain as an adversary to the United States and usually favored France. He said of the Napoleonic Wars, “The liberty of the whole world was depending on the issue of the contest”

though Jefferson's economic warfare against Britain resulted in hurting the American economy.<ref>David Reynolds, America, Empire of Liberty: A New History of the United States (2009), p 73</ref> Jefferson once argued that America would become the world's great “empire of liberty”—that is, the model for democracy and republicanism. On departing the presidency in 1809, he described America as: :“Trusted with the destinies of this solitary republic of the world, the only monument of human rights, and the sole depository of the sacred fire of freedom and self-government, from hence it is to be lighted up in other regions of the earth, if other regions of the earth shall ever become susceptible of its benign influence.”<ref>Quoted in Tucker and Hendrickson, Empire of Liberty p 7; see John P. Foley, ed. The Jeffersonian Cyclopedia (1900) text p 895</ref>

This statement expresses Jefferson's refusal as president to diplomatically recognize Haiti, founded in 1804 as the second republic in the world, after its successful slave revolution in the French colony of Saint-Domingue. Fearing the success of the “slave republic” would rouse the American South's slaves to rebellion, Jefferson supported an arms and trade embargo against Haiti.<ref>

</ref> But, during the revolution, when Jefferson had wanted to discourage French efforts in 1802–1803 at regaining control (and rebuilding their empire in North America), he had allowed arms and contraband goods to reach Saint-Domingue.<ref>

</ref>

Rebellion and individual rights

During the French Revolution, Jefferson advocated rebellion and violence when necessary. In a letter to James Madison on January 30, 1787, Jefferson wrote, “A little rebellion, now and then, is a good thing, and as necessary in the political world as storms in the physical…It is a medicine necessary for the sound health of government.”<ref name=“Melton 277 Madison”>Melton, The Quotable Founding Fathers, 277.</ref> Similarly, in a letter to Abigail Adams on February 22, 1787 he wrote, “The spirit of resistance to government is so valuable on certain occasions that I wish it to be always kept alive. It will often be exercised when wrong, but better so than not to be exercised at all.”<ref name=“Melton 277 Madison” /> Concerning Shays' Rebellion after he had heard of the bloodshed, on November 13, 1787 Jefferson wrote to William S. Smith, John Adams' son-in-law, “What signify a few lives lost in a century or two? The tree of liberty must from time to time be refreshed with the blood of patriots and tyrants. It is its natural manure.”<ref>Letter to William Smith, November 13, 1787</ref> In another letter to Smith during 1787, Jefferson wrote: “And what country can preserve its liberties, if the rulers are not warned from time to time, that this people preserve the spirit of resistance? Let them take arms.”<ref name=“Melton 277 Madison” />

From his initial viewpoint in Paris at the time of the Constitution’s ratification, Jefferson was transformed in office as president under a challenge which both strengthened the Union and Jefferson’s commitment to it.<ref>Stewart, 1997, p. 10</ref>

As late as 1804 before his second term began, Jefferson seemed at ease with the prospect of dividing the nation into separate democracies. In view of a prospective republic in the Mississippi River Valley, they would be “as much our children and our descendents” alongside any coastal confederacy remaining. “I feel myself as much identified with that [western] country … as with this [United States].<ref>Stewart, 1997 pp. 58-59</ref>

But midway through his second term, the idealistic internationalist yielded to the nationalist politician. “A strict observance of the written laws is doubtless one of the high duties of a good citizen, but it is not the highest … The laws of necessity, of self-preservation, of saving our country when in danger, are of higher obligation.” <ref name=Stewart268-269>Stewart, 1997, pp.268-269</ref> The challenge of a filibustering Aaron Burr and the U.S. General in Spanish pay James Wilkinson, combined with English, Spanish and Creek Amerindian threats led to a rationale later echoed by Lincoln. “To lose our country by a scrupulous adherence to written law, would be to lose the law itself, with life, liberty, property and those who are enjoying them with us; thus absurdly sacrificing the end to the means.<ref name=Stewart268-269/>

Slaves and slavery

Jefferson lived in a Virginia planter society economically dependent on slavery. A wealthy slave owner himself, he employed slave labor which he depended on to run his household and work the fields of his various plantations and the various shops at Monticello. Slaves also played a major role in the building of Monticello<ref> Thomas Jefferson Foundation accounts: ''Monticello (house)''</ref> and Poplar Forest<ref>Poplar Forest Corp.</ref> Children of slaves began work at the age of ten, either in the fields, the nailery, the textile shop, or in the houses according to their capabilities. Children under ten usually minded the infants or did other light work in and around the house.<ref>Gordon-Reed, 1997, p. 150</ref><ref>Meacham, 2012, p. xii</ref> Yet throughout his life Jefferson maintained that the institution of slavery was harmful to both slave and master in his writings and discourse.<ref>name=Ferling_STWA_p161>Ferling (2000), Setting the World Ablaze, p. 161</ref><ref name=Howe_p73>Howe (1997), Making the American Self: Jonathan Edwards to Abraham Lincoln, p. 74</ref> His views on slavery and African slaves, however, were complex; historians are divided on whether he truly opposed the institution largely because Jefferson was publicly silent on emancipation during his presidency and only freed a few slaves on his Monticello plantation.<ref name=EOAAH_p53>Alexander, 2010</ref><ref name=Davis_p179>Davis (1999), Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution, p 179</ref> Some researchers suggest Jefferson's slave ownership contradicted his philosophy of “all men are created equal”.<ref name=EOAAH_p53/> Other historians, however, maintain that the sentiment in this statement is what actually inspired and drove Jefferson to advance legislation to abolish slavery and that <ref>Cogliano, 2006, p. 142</ref> he believed slavery was contrary to the laws of nature where everyone had a right to personal liberty.<ref>Thomas Jefferson Foundation accounts: ''Treatment''</ref> Jefferson attempted to legislate the emancipation of slaves on three occasions; once in 1769 at the Virginia General Assembly,<ref>Onuf 2012, p.214</ref> another in 1784 at the Continental Congress <ref>

</ref> and once when he proposed to ban slavery in all Western Territories after 1800 where he was defeated by Congress by one vote.<ref name=EOAAH_p53/>

Over the course of his life he owned some 600 slaves, buying and selling them as required, maintaining about 130 at any one time.<ref name=Jaffe_p209>Jaffe (1996), Who Were the Founding Fathers? Two Hundred Years of Reinventing America, p. 209</ref><ref name=“FinkelmanMyth”>Finkelman, 1994 pp.201–202</ref> On a number of occasions Jefferson would also purchase slaves to unite families.<ref>Malone, 1962, p. 207</ref><ref>Thomas Jefferson Foundation accounts: ''Families''</ref> Jefferson held a paternalist view towards his slaves, frequently referring to them as his extended family who needed his guidance, discipline and protection.<ref>Cogliano, 2006, p. 219</ref><ref>Onuf, 2012, p. 258</ref>

Jefferson accepted conventional thought during his lifetime that Africans were an inferior race. In his 'Notes on the State of Virginia' (1785), he expressed a “strong suspicion” that the Negro was inferior to whites in both the endowments of body and mind but wasn't sure if it was because they were a “distinct race” or were so because of “time and circumstances”.<ref name=“Peterson p.167”>Peterson, 1960 p.167</ref><ref>Jefferson, Randolph (ed.), 1853, p. 155</ref> Historians have generally described Jefferson as a benevolent slaveowner,<ref name=“Bear, 1967, p.99”>Bear, 1967, p.99</ref><ref name=“Peterson p.535”>Peterson, 1986 p.535</ref><ref name=“Halliday p.236”>Halliday, 2009, p.236</ref> though some historians have expressed doubts about that.<ref>Wiencek, 2012</ref> Jefferson did not allow his slaves to be overworked and gave them Sundays, Christmas and Easter off.<ref name=“Bear, 1967, p.99”/><ref name=“Peterson p.535”>Peterson, 1986 p.535</ref><ref name=“Halliday p.236”/> According to a former Monticello slave, slaves were seldom punished except for stealing or fighting or other extreme offenses, though there were some cases of excessive whippings at the hand of overseers.<ref name=treatment>Thomas Jefferson Foundation accounts: ''Treatement''</ref><ref>Miller, 1994, p. 106</ref> Slaves were provided with log cabins with a fireplace, good clothing and food and were allowed to have their own gardens and raise chickens which, along with eggs and produce, were sold by more than half the adult slaves to the Jefferson household.<ref>Thomas Jefferson Foundation accounts: ''In Our Own Time''</ref>

Throughout Jefferson's political career he opposed the international slave trade. His proposed solution for the slavery dilemma was to transport freed slaves to Africa where they could set up an independent black nation, leaving the United States a country primarily of European-American and Native Americans. In his annual message to Congress in 1806, President Jefferson called for outlawing the trans-Atlantic slave trade, asking Congress to “withdraw the citizens of the United States from all further participation in those violations of human rights . . . which the morality, the reputation, and the best of our country have long been eager to proscribe.” Congress complied and on March 2, 1807, Jefferson signed the Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves into law; it took effect 1 January 1808, the earliest date permitted by the Constitution.<ref>Du Bois, 1904, pp. 95-96</ref><ref>Thomas Jefferson Foundation accounts: ''Jefferson and Slavery''</ref> The abolition of the slave trade was a major achievement of Jefferson's presidency.<ref>Miller, 1994, p. 142</ref> Jefferson, while President, privately sought to deport emancipated Virginia slaves through British and Portugal companies to Sierra Leone off the coast of Africa, however, these efforts were unsuccessful.<ref name=Peterson_pp998-999>Peterson (1970), Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation: A Biography, pp 998-999</ref> Southern contemporary critics viewed Jefferson was opposed to slavery for his Notes on the State of Virginia, his letter to Benjamin Banneker in 1791, and his reference to St. George Tucker's federal plan to purchase and free slaves.<ref name=Bernstein_p138>Bernstein (2004), Thomas Jefferson: The Revolution of Ideas, p 138</ref> Jefferson's 1803 Louisiana Purchase treaty allowed slavery to continue as the French were assured that there would be no interference with their interests when the purchase was made.<ref>Geer, Lee, Thorpe, p. 221</ref>

Jefferson–Hemings controversy

For two centuries, the claim that Thomas Jefferson fathered children by his slave, Sally Hemings, has been a matter of discussion and disagreement. In 1802, the journalist James T. Callender, after being denied a position as postmaster by Jefferson, published allegations that Jefferson had taken Hemings as a concubine and had fathered several children with her.<ref>Hyland, 2009, pp. ix, 2-3</ref> Sally's father was John Wayles, who held her as a slave, and he was also the father of Jefferson's wife Martha. Sally was three-quarters white and strikingly similar in looks and voice to Jefferson's late wife.<ref name=Meacham>Meacham, 2012, p. 55</ref>

In 1998, in order to establish the male DNA line, a panel of researchers conducted a Y-DNA study of living descendants of Jefferson's uncle, Field, and of a descendant of Sally's son, Eston Hemings. The results, published in the journal Nature,<ref name=“Foster”>

</ref> showed a Y-DNA match with the male Jefferson line. In 2000, the Thomas Jefferson Foundation (TJF) assembled a team of historians whose report concluded that, together with the DNA and historic evidence, there was a high probability that Jefferson was the father of Eston and likely of all Hemings' children. W. M. Wallenborn, who worked on the Monticello report, disagreed, saying it was a “rush to judgement,” and that the claims are unsubstantiated and politically driven.<ref>Hyland, 2009 pp.76, 119</ref>

Since the DNA tests were made public, most biographers and historians have concluded that the widower Jefferson had a long-term relationship with Hemings.<ref>Helen F. M. Leary, National Genealogical Society Quarterly, Vol. 89, No. 3, September 2001, pp. 207, 214 – 218</ref> Other scholars, including a team of professors associated with the Thomas Jefferson Heritage Society, maintain that the evidence is insufficient to conclude Thomas Jefferson's paternity, and note the possibility that other Jeffersons, including Thomas's brother Randolph Jefferson and his five sons who often fraternized with slaves, could have fathered Hemings' children.<ref name=“SCR”>"The Scholars Commission on the Jefferson-Hemings Issue", 2001, Thomas Jefferson Heritage Society</ref><ref>Hyland, 2009 pp.30–31</ref>

Jefferson freed two slaves of the extended Hemings family by manumission in the 18th century. He allowed two of Sally Hemings's children to leave the Monticello estate without formal manumission when they came of age; five other slaves, including the two remaining sons of Sally Hemings, were freed by his will upon his death. Although not legally freed, Sally Hemings left Monticello with her sons. They were counted as free whites in the 1830 census.<ref>Paul Finkelman, 1981), pp. 37–38, 41–45.</ref><ref>Gordon-Reed, 1997, p. 209</ref>

Religion

Jefferson’s Bible featuring only the words of Jesus from the evangelists, in parallel Greek, Latin, French and English />

Jefferson's religious and spiritual beliefs were a combination of various religious and theological precepts. Around 1764, Jefferson had lost faith in conventional religion after he had tested the Bible for historical its accuracy. Rather he adopted a stern code of personal moral conduct and drew inspiration from classical literature.<ref name=Malone_DOAB_p18>Malone, p. 18</ref> While he embraced various Christian principles he rejected most of the orthodox Christianity of his day and was especially hostile to the Catholic Church as he saw it operate in France. Jefferson advanced the idea of Separation of Church and State, believing that the government should not have an official religion while at the same time it should not prohibit any particular religious expression. He first expressed these thoughts in an 1802 letter to the Danbury Baptists in Connecticut.<ref>Bailey, 2007, pp. 23, 239</ref>

Throughout his life Jefferson was intensely interested in theology, biblical study, and morality. As a landowner he played a role in governing his local Episcopal Church; in terms of belief he was inclined toward Deism and the moral philosophy of Christianity, though when he was home he attended the Episcopal church and raised his daughters in that faith.<ref name=“Randall, 1994 p.203”/><ref>Merwin, 1901 p.10</ref>

In a private letter to Benjamin Rush, Jefferson refers to himself as “Christian” (1803): “To the corruptions of Christianity I am, indeed, opposed; but not to the genuine precepts of Jesus himself. I am a Christian, in the only sense in which he wished any one to be; sincerely attached to his doctrines, in preference to all others; ascribing to himself every human excellence…”<ref>April 21, 1803 letter to Benjamin Rush in Bergh

, ed., Writings of Thomas Jefferson 10:379</ref> In a letter to his close friend William Short, Jefferson clarified, “it is not to be understood that I am with him [Jesus] in all his doctrines. I am a Materialist; he takes the side of Spiritualism; he preaches the efficacy of repentance toward forgiveness of sin; I require a counterpoise of good works to redeem it. Among the sayings and discourses imputed to him by his biographers, I find many passages of fine imagination, correct morality, and of the most lovely benevolence; and others, again, of so much ignorance, of so much absurdity, so much untruth, charlatanism and imposture, as to pronounce it impossible that such contradictions should have proceeded from the same being.”<ref>Jefferson, Thomas “Letter to William Short, 13 April 1820” The Writings of Thomas Jefferson. Ed. Andrew Lipscomb. Hershey: Pennsylvania State University, 1907. p. 244.</ref>

Jefferson praised the morality of Jesus and edited a compilation of his teachings, omitting the miracles and supernatural elements of the biblical account, titling it The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth.<ref>

</ref> Of the religion of Christianity he said that it possessed, “the most sublime and benevolent code of morals which has ever been offered to man.”<ref>Jefferson, Washington, 1907, p. 89</ref> Jefferson was firmly anticlerical saying that in “every country and every age, the priest has been hostile to liberty. He is always in alliance with the despot…they have perverted the purest religion ever preached to man into mystery and jargon, unintelligible to all mankind, and therefore the safer for their purposes.”<ref>Letter to Horatio Spafford (1814). In The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Retirement Series. Vol. 7. Ed. J. Jefferson Looney. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2011. 248.</ref>

Jefferson rejected the idea of immaterial beings and considered the idea of an immaterial Creator a heresy introduced into Christianity. In a letter to John Adams, Jefferson wrote that to “talk of immaterial existences is to talk of nothings. . . . At what age of the Christian church this heresy of immaterialism, this masked atheism, crept in, I do not know. But a heresy it certainly is. Jesus taught nothing of it. He told us indeed that 'God is a spirit,' but he has not defined what a spirit is, nor said that it is not matter. And the ancient fathers generally, if not universally, held it to be matter: light and thin indeed, an etherial gas; but still matter.”<ref name=“adams1820”>

</ref>

In 1777, Jefferson drafted Virginia's An Act of Establishing Religious Freedom. Submitted in 1779, the Act was finally ratified in 1786 by the Virginia legislature. The Act forbade that men be forcibly compelled to attend or donate money to religious establishments, and that men “shall be free to profess, and by argument to maintain, their opinions in matters of religion.” <ref name=Sargent_p68>Sargent, 1997, pp.69-70</ref> Jefferson initially supported restrictions banning clergy from holding public office, however, later in life he changed this view believing the clergy had the same rights as others to hold public office.<ref>Finkelman, 2006 p.921</ref>

Interests and activities

Jefferson was a farmer, with a lifelong interest in mechanical innovations, new crops, soil conditions, his gardens, and scientific agricultural techniques. His main cash crop was tobacco, but its price was usually low and it was rarely profitable. He tried to achieve self-sufficiency with wheat, vegetables, flax, corn, hogs, sheep, poultry and cattle to feed and clothe his family, slaves and white employees, but he had cash flow problems and was always in debt.<ref>Hayes, 2008, p. 100</ref><ref>McEwan, 1991, pp.20–39</ref>

Jefferson was an accomplished architect who helped popularize the Neo-Palladian style in the United States.

Jefferson was interested in birds and wine, and was a noted gourmet. Jefferson was a prolific writer. He learned Gaelic to translate Ossian, and sent to James Macpherson for the originals.

Jefferson invented many small practical devices and improved contemporary inventions. These include the design for a revolving book-stand to hold five volumes at once to be viewed by the reader. Another was the “Great Clock”, powered by the Earth's gravitational pull on Revolutionary War cannonballs. Its chime on Monticello's roof could be heard as far as the University of Virginia. Louis Leschot, a machinist, aided Jefferson with the clock. Jefferson invented a

long coded wooden cipher wheel, mounted on a metal spindle, to keep secure State Department messages while he was Secretary of State. The messages were scrambled and unscrambled by 26 alphabet letters on each circular segment of the wheel. He improved the moldboard plow, an idea he never patented and gave freely to posterity,<ref>Malone, 1962, pp. 213-215</ref> and the polygraph, in collaboration with Charles Willson Peale.<ref>Univ. Virginia archives</ref> As Minister to France, Jefferson was impressed by France's military standardization program known as the Système Gribeauval. As president, he initiated a program at the Federal Armories to develop interchangeable parts for firearms. Jefferson's curiosity about devices and machines was insatiable. He made improvements and introduced innovations on an English printing press he had brought back with him. He also invented the pedometer, a device for counting the number of steps taken while walking, and gave one to James Madison. For Jefferson's inventiveness and ingenuity he received an Honorary Doctor of Law degree from Harvard University, receiving two such others before that.<ref>Peterson, 1970, pp.335-336</ref>

Although not realized in Jefferson's lifetime, the concept of interchangeable parts eventually led to modern industry and was a major factor in the United States' industrial power by the late 19th century. Jefferson can also be accredited as the creator of the swivel chair, the first of which he created and used to write much of the Declaration of Independence.

Personal life

As a young unmarried adult Jefferson was a tall sandy haired carefree gentleman who was briefly involved with other women before his Marriage to Martha. He developed a serious side to his nature sometime after his marriage proposal to Rebecca Burwell was rejected.<ref>Malone (1933), Dictionary of American Biography, p 18</ref>

During his time in Paris as Minister to France, in 1786 the widower Jefferson met and fell in love with 27 year old Maria Cosway, a highly educated Italian-born married English artist, musician and composer. They had a relationship lasting about six weeks about which biographers have speculated; A married woman, she returned to Great Britain, but they maintained a lifelong correspondence.<ref name=“nps”>NPS</ref>

In 1786 when Cosway returned to London, Jefferson wrote a 4,000-word love letter to her, which has become well known as his “Dialogue of the Head vs. the Heart”.<ref name=“headheart”>

</ref> After Jefferson left Paris, he and Cosway remained friends and had a lifelong correspondence.<ref>Malone

</ref> Each saved their letters from the other.<ref name=“nps” /> Similarly, Jefferson kept at Monticello an engraving of Maria done by Luigi Schiavonetti, from a drawing by Richard Cosway. In turn, Cosway had Trumbull create a portrait of Jefferson which she kept.<ref name=“virginiaedu”>

</ref>

Later years

In the years following Jefferson's political career he spent most of his time and energy pursing educational interests, selling his vast collection of books to the Library of Congress and founding and building the University of Virginia.

University of Virginia

After leaving the Presidency, Jefferson continued to be active in public affairs. He wanted to found a new institution of higher learning, specifically one free of church influences, where students could specialize in many new areas not offered at other universities. Jefferson believed educating people was a good way to establish an organized society. He believed such schools should be paid for by the general public, so less wealthy people could be educated as students.<ref>

</ref> A letter to Joseph Priestley, in January 1800, indicated that he had been planning the University for decades before its founding.

In 1819 at the age of 76, he founded the University of Virginia, considered his last great public service. He initiated and organized the legislative campaign for its charter and with the assistance of Edmund Bacon, procured and purchased the location. He was the principle designer of the buildings. Its innovative design was an expression of his aspirations for both state-sponsored education and an agrarian democracy in the new Republic. He also planned the University's curriculum and served as the first rector. Upon its opening in 1825, it was the first university to offer a full slate of elective courses to its students. One of the largest construction projects to that time in North America, the university was notable for being centered about a library rather than a church reinforcing the principle of separation of church and state.

His educational idea of creating specialized units of learning is expressed in the configuration of his campus plan, which he called the “Academical Village”. Individual academic units were defined as distinct structures, represented by Pavilions, facing a grassy quadrangle. Each Pavilion housed classroom, faculty office, and residences. Though distinctive, each is visually equal in importance, and they are linked with a series of open-air arcades that are the front facades of student accommodations. Gardens and vegetable plots are placed behind and surrounded by serpentine walls, affirming the importance of the agrarian lifestyle. No campus chapel was included in Jefferson's original plans. Until his death, Jefferson invited students and faculty of the college to his home.

Stylistically, Jefferson was a proponent of the Greek and Roman styles, which he believed to be most representative of American democracy by historical association. Each academic unit is designed with a two-story temple front facing the quadrangle, while the library is modeled on the Roman Pantheon. A survey of members of the American Institute of Architects identified Jefferson's campus as the most significant work of architecture in America. The University was designed as the capstone of the educational system of Virginia. In his vision, any citizen of the state could attend school with the sole criterion being ability.<ref>

</ref><ref>

</ref> After Jefferson died in 1826, James Madison replaced him as the University Rector.<ref>Jefferson Foundation: University of Virginia</ref> In a codicil to his last will, Jefferson left most of his library to the University.<ref>Crawford, 2008, p. 235</ref>

Final days

Jefferson's health began to deteriorate in July 1825, from a combination of various illnesses and conditions probably including toxemia, uremia and pneumonia.<ref>

</ref> By May 1826 Jefferson's health was so frail that he was virtually a shut-in and by June he was confined to bed. He spent most of his waking hours going over his finances and debts. On May 22 Jefferson made his last entry in the 'Farm Book', noting the price of lamp oil at a dollar twenty five cents a gallon and the cost of lighting his estate for the last month. On June 24 Jefferson wrote his last letter, to a Washington newspaper, the National Intelligencer,<ref>Text of letter from Thomas Jefferson to Roger Weightman, June 24, 1826. United States National Archives, accessed 4 July 2013.</ref> where he once more reaffirmed his faith in the principles set forth in the Declaration of Independence. On July 3 Jefferson was overcome by fever. Realizing he would never leave Monticello again, he was forced to decline an invitation to Washington to attend a fiftieth anniversary celebration of the Declaration.

During the last hours of Jefferson's life he was accompanied by his grandson Thomas Jefferson Randolph and his doctor, Robley Dunglison, and other family members and friends. He was at ease with the idea of death and was ready to die. When his doctor entered his room he said Well Doctor, you see I am still here yet. After being checked by the doctor a family member and a friend offered words of hope that he was looking better to which Jefferson impatiently replied.. Do not imagine for a moment that I feel the smallest solicitude as to the result“ at which point he calmly gave directions for his funeral, forbidding any sort of celebration or parade. Moments later Jefferson called the rest of his family and friends around his bedside and with a distinct tone he uttered:<center> I have done for my country, and for all mankind, all that I could do,<br>and I now resign my soul, without fear, to my God, – my daughter to my country.<ref name=“rayner428-29”>Rayner, 1834 p9.428–429</ref></center>

After falling back to sleep Jefferson later awoke at eight o'clock that evening and spoke his last words, ”Is it the fourth yet?“. His doctor replied, 'It soon will be”.

On July 4, at ten minutes before one o'clock in the afternoon, Jefferson died at the age of 83, the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of Independence and a few hours before John Adams, whose own last words were, “Independence forever” and “Thomas Jefferson survives.”<ref name=“rayner428-29”/><ref>Bernstein, 2003, p. 189</ref>

Jefferson's funeral was held July 5, performed by Reverend Charles Clay. The funeral was a simple and quiet affair, by his own request. No invitations were sent, but some friends and visitors came to the ceremony and burial. Jefferson's remains were carried by “servants, family and friends” to the family grave site at Monticello.<ref>Bear, 1974, p.77</ref>

:Jefferson wrote his own epitaph, which reads:

Though born into a wealthy slave-owning family, Jefferson had many financial problems, and died deeply in debt.<ref name = “Levy”>

</ref> He gave instructions for disposal of his assets in his will<ref>Jefferson, H.A. Washington (ed.), p. 511</ref> and after his death, his estate, possessions and slaves were sold off in public auctions starting in 1827.<ref name=“Levy”/> In 1831 Monticello was sold by Martha Jefferson and the surviving Jefferson heirs to James Turner Barclay, and in 1834 Barclay in turn sold the house and remaining land to Uriah P. Levy.<ref name=“Kierner”>Kierner, 2012, pp. 245, 246</ref>

Memorials and honors

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, Declaration excerpts right|alt=Rudulph Evans' statue of Jefferson with excerpts from the Declaration of Independence to the right]]

Jefferson has been memorialized in many ways, including buildings, sculptures, and currency. The Jefferson Memorial was dedicated in Washington, D.C. on April 13, 1943, the 200th anniversary of Jefferson's birth. The interior of the memorial includes a

statue of Jefferson and engravings of passages from his writings. Most prominent are the words inscribed around the monument near the roof: “I have sworn upon the altar of god eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man.”<ref>Peterson, 1960, p. 378</ref> During the New Deal era of the 1930s, Democrats honored Jefferson and Andrew Jackson as their party's founding fathers and continued inspiration. He was portrayed by them as the spokesman for democracy and the common man. President Franklin D. Roosevelt led the effort to gain approvals for his monument in Washington.<ref>FAMous People: Thomas Jefferson</ref>

Thomas Jefferson has been honored on U.S. postage since the first Jefferson postage stamp was released in 1856. Jefferson was the second president to be featured on U.S. Postage.<ref name=“ReferenceA”>Scott Stamp Catalog, Index of Commemorative Stamps</ref> His portrait appears on the U.S. $2 bill, nickel, and the $100 Series EE Savings Bond, and a Presidential Dollar which released into circulation on August 16, 2007.<ref>

</ref>

His original tombstone, now a cenotaph, is located on the campus in the University of Missouri's Quadrangle. A life mask of Jefferson was created by John Henri Isaac Browere in the 1820s.<ref>Hart, 1899, pp.xiii, 17, 36</ref>

Jefferson, together with George Washington, Theodore Roosevelt and Abraham Lincoln, was chosen by sculptor Gutzon Borglum and approved by President Calvin Coolidge to be depicted in stone at the Mount Rushmore Memorial.<ref name=“rushmore”>NPS: Mt. Rushmore</ref>

Other memorials to Jefferson include the commissioning of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ship Thomas Jefferson in Norfolk, Virginia on July 8, 2003, in commemoration of his establishment of a Survey of the Coast, the predecessor to NOAA's National Ocean Service. A bronze monument to Jefferson was erected in Jefferson Park, Chicago along Milwaukee Avenue in 2005.

Historical reputation

Jefferson has often been seen as a major American icon of liberty, democracy and republicanism.<ref>Peterson, 1960, pp. 5, 67–69, 189–208, 340.</ref> Some have hailed him as one of the most articulate spokesmen of the American Revolution, and as a renaissance man who promoted science and scholarship. Abraham Lincoln called Jefferson “the most distinguished politician in our history.”<ref>

</ref> Recent historians, including his biographer Dumas Malone of the mid-twentieth century and the historian Ron Chernow, have seen a more mixed picture. They have noted his views on race and slavery, his controversial tenure as governor of Virginia, his disloyalty under Washington and Adams, his sometimes extreme political writings, his advocacy of nullification and secession, his personal spending excesses, and his troubled second term as president.<ref>Chernow, 2004, pp. 585–587</ref> Other historians, such as Richard Drinnon and David Stannard, have criticized other aspects of his presidency, such as the harsh treatment of Native Americans under Jefferson.<ref>Drinnon, 1997, pp.787-79</ref>

Jefferson's legacy as a champion of Enlightenment ideals has been challenged by various modern historians, who find his continued ownership of hundreds of slaves at Monticello to be in conflict with his stated views on freedom and the equality of men.<ref name=“Cogliano2006-202”>Cogliano, 2006, p. 202</ref> Cogliano says, “No single issue has contributed as much to the decline of Jefferson's reputation since World War II as the slavery question.”<ref>Cogliano, 2006, pp. 202-204</ref> The historian Gordon S. Wood has noted that during the progressive era of the late 19th and early 20th century, when scholars saw revolutionary America as a struggle between “haves” and “have nots”, Jefferson's reputation reached new heights as his presidency was seen as the final defeat of the moneyed classes. Wood argues that this predominated until the 1940s, when the progressive era view fell from favor, and Jefferson's reputation declined from its prior heights. As modern historians have seen slavery as a greater evil than the mercantilism that Jefferson's adversaries championed, Wood argues, Jefferson's legacy in recent decades has come under further scrutiny and criticism.<ref>Wood, 2010, p. 14</ref> However though Jefferson has been criticized for owning slaves, scholarly surveys continue to rate him among the top ten presidents.<ref>Murry, Blessing, 1993 p.7</ref><ref>CSPAN, 2009, Ranking Presidents</ref>

Writings

See also

References

Bibliography

<!– Please place 'Web site sources' in subsection below –>

:

Web site sources

Primary sources

  • Ebook (Note: This was Jefferson's only book; numerous editions)

  • Padover, Saul K. ed., (1967). The Writings of Thomas Jefferson (selected writings), The Easton Press, Norwalk, Conn., 352 pages
  • , E'book

Notes

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Thomas Jefferson 1743 births 1826 deaths 18th-century American writers Ambassadors of the United States to France American architects American book and manuscript collectors American deists American foreign policy writers American gardeners American inventors American people of English descent American people of Welsh descent American planters American political philosophers American Unitarians Burials at Monticello Classical liberals College of William & Mary alumni Continental Congressmen from Virginia Deists Democratic-Republican Party Presidents of the United States Democratic-Republican Party Vice Presidents of the United States Enlightenment philosophers Gentleman scientists Governors of Virginia History of the United States (1789–1849) House of Burgesses members Thomas Members of the American Philosophical Society Members of the Virginia House of Delegates People from Albemarle County, Virginia People of the American Enlightenment People of Virginia in the American Revolution Physiocrats Pre-19th-century cryptographers Presidents of the United States Randolph family of Virginia Religious skeptics Signers of the United States Declaration of Independence United States presidential candidates, 1792 United States presidential candidates, 1796 United States presidential candidates, 1800 United States presidential candidates, 1804 United States Secretaries of State University and college founders University of Virginia people Vice Presidents of the United States Virginia Democratic-Republicans Virginia lawyers Washington administration cabinet members Writers from Virginia

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