User Tools

Site Tools


racism

Racism

Racism is a term usually only used by critics. Official definitions of racism often state that the term should only be applied to the belief that some races are superior and to negative actions due to this. In practice, the term is often applied as a form of ad hominem on anyone who believes in the existence of races and even on persons only advocating restricting immigration, persons only criticizing another culture or multiculturalism, persons only supporting their own country/ethnicity, and so on.

Etymology

The Oxford English Dictionary states that the first English use of the word racism occurred in 1902. The word at this early time did not necessarily have the same meaning or frequent usage as today. Starting the in the 1920s, it was used as a derogatory and misleading translation of the “untranslatable” German term völkische. The German language, especially at this time, makes a distinction between Völk (“People”) and Rasse (“Race”). The word was later applied to claimed National Socialism racial ideology and policies. The 1938 English translation of the book Racism, by the Jewish sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld (who was also an early proponent of the sexual revolution), used the word in a sense similar to the modern one and may have contributed to this usage of the word becoming widespread.<ref>“racism”. OED Online. Oxford University Press.</ref><ref>On the origin of the word Racist. 29 October 2012. National-Socialist Worldview. http://national-socialist-worldview.blogspot.fr/2012/10/on-unclear-origin-of-word-racist.html</ref><ref>Peter Frost. Birth of a word. May 23, 2015. Evo and Proud. http://evoandproud.blogspot.de/2015/05/birth-of-word.html</ref><ref>Samuel Francis. “Racism” The Curious Beginnings of a Useless Word. http://www.heretical.com/miscella/racism.html</ref>

The term racism “replaced earlier words, racialism (1871) and racialist (1917), both often used early 20c. in a British or South African context. In the U.S., race hatred, race prejudice had been used, and, especially in 19c. political contexts, negrophobia.”<ref>Racist. Etymology Online. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=racialism</ref> Today, the term racialism instead has a meaning similar to race realism.

Terms used by individuals/organizations in order to describe themselves

Individuals/organizations supporting the existence of races may use terms such as race realism or racialism.

Individuals/organizations supporting their own group may use terms such as patriotism, nationalism (and derivatives such as national socialism), identitarianism, pro-[name of own group], etc. This does not necessarily mean considering this group to be a race. On the contrary, officially sanctioned patriotism in multiracial countries typically explicitly rejects links to race. Neither does it necessarily mean considering this group to be superior to other groups, anymore than an individual supporting the individual's own family necessarily considers this family to be superior to other families.

It is possible to advocate for racial segregation despite not seeing any group as superior and instead argue that racial segregation would be beneficial for all groups, due to factors such as problems caused ethnic heterogeneity and mixed race groups having problems due to genetic outbreeding depression and psychological issues caused by identity issues. Regardless, racial segregation is often viewed as a form of racism.

Two sides

Descriptions of argued racism tend to be completely one-sided where the argued racist offender is depicted as acting out of innate evilness and unexplained spite and the argued victim is depicted as completely blameless with no responsibility for the events. In reality, the circumstances, interactions, and/or motives of the two sides may be more complex. For example, some cases of anti-Semitism have been argued to have developed as responses to intense resource competition between Jews and non-Jews (see the Jewish group evolutionary strategy).

Double standard

Pro-White or pro-European organizations are often more or less automatically accused of racism and they have little influence. They are often given labels such as “White supremacist and/or ”hate group“.

In contrast, applying a double standard, accusations of racism are much rarer against, for example, pro-Black or pro-Jewish organizations, which openly and extensively lobby for the self-interests of their own group.

Affirmative action, hate crime, hate speech laws

Laws regarding affirmative action, hate crime, and hate speech give special legal privileges to certain groups, but not to other groups, creating legal inequalities, and with which groups are given these special legal privileges varying greatly between different countries. Such laws may be considered to apply a double standard, be discriminatory, and/or be racist.

See also the articles on these topics.

Organized "anti-racism"

See the Anti-racism article.

Colorism

There are several kinds of empirical evidence against “colorism” (skin color differences as the cause of group differences due to factors such as racism). For example, darker skin color not being associated with more negative outcomes after controlling for IQ differences.<ref>Category: Colorism. Human Varieties. http://humanvarieties.org/category/black-white-iq-gap/colorism/</ref>

Racist countries and groups

The World Value Survey has asked people in more than 80 different countries to identify the kinds of people they would not want as neighbors. Some respondents, picking from a list, chose ”people of a different race.“ The frequency of picking this has been argued to be an indicator of the degree of racism in a country. White countries were generally among the least racist according to this measurement.<ref>A fascinating map of the world’s most and least racially tolerant countries. May 15, 2013. Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/worldviews/wp/2013/05/15/a-fascinating-map-of-the-worlds-most-and-least-racially-tolerant-countries</ref>

White countries had the most positive views on homosexuality in a 2013 survey.<ref>The Global Divide on Homosexuality. June 4, 2013. Pew Research. http://www.pewglobal.org/2013/06/04/the-global-divide-on-homosexuality/</ref>

A 2013 US survey found that both Blacks and Whites thought that Blacks were the most racist group.<ref>More Americans View Blacks As Racist Than Whites, Hispanics. Wednesday, July 03, 2013. Rasmussen Reports. http://www.rasmussenreports.com/public_content/lifestyle/general_lifestyle/july_2013/more_americans_view_blacks_as_racist_than_whites_hispanics</ref>

A 2011 study found that both White and Blacks in the US agreed that anti-Black racism had decreased over the last 60 years. However, Whites believed that anti-White racism had increased and had become a bigger problem than anti-Black racism. Also Blacks believed that anti-White racism had increased.<ref>Whites Believe They Are Victims of Racism More Often Than Blacks. May 23, 2011. TuftsNow. http://now.tufts.edu/news-releases/whites-believe-they-are-victims-racism-more-o</ref>

A 2012 survey in France found 56% thought that anti-White racism was increasing in areas in the large cities.<ref>Pour 56 % des Français le “racisme anti-Blancs” se développe. Le Monde 28.09.2012 à 15h2. http://www.lemonde.fr/societe/article/2012/09/28/pour-56-des-francais-le-racisme-anti-blancs-se-developpe_1767478_3224.html</ref>

A 2012 study found that almost one in three (29%) of Whites in Britain said they now expected to be treated worse than other races by key public services, including the police, prisons, courts, Crown Prosecution service, probation service, local housing organizations, schools or GPs. Council housing departments or housing associations were identified as the most likely to discriminate against Whites. Increasing numbers of Whites also stated they had failed to win promotion because of their race and been turned down for a job for the same reason. Whites were also more likely than those from ethnic minorities to believe that racial prejudice and discrimination was getting worse and such views were increasing in prevalence. Whites also felt less able than other ethnic groups to influence decisions affecting their local area and the country as a whole.<ref>One third of whites claim they are victims of racism. Daily Mail. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1043717/One-whites-claim-victims-racism.html</ref>

A 2017 survey found that 55 percent of Whites stated that there is discrimination against Whites in America today. Lower- and moderate-income White Americans were more likely to state that Whites are discriminated against — and to state that they have felt it, either when applying for a job, raise or promotion or in the college-admissions process.<ref>Majority Of White Americans Say They Believe Whites Face Discrimination http://www.npr.org/2017/10/24/559604836/majority-of-white-americans-think-theyre-discriminated-against?</ref>

A 2018 study stated that ”This study reports results from a new analysis of 17 survey experiment studies that permitted assessment of racial discrimination, drawn from the archives of the Time-sharing Experiments for the Social Sciences. For White participants (n=10 435), pooled results did not detect a net discrimination for or against White targets, but, for Black participants (n=2781), pooled results indicated the presence of a small-to-moderate net discrimination in favor of Black targets […] given that some of the studies have never been fully reported on in a journal or academic book, the results also suggest the need for preregistration to reduce or eliminate publication bias in racial discrimination studies.“<ref>Black and White Discrimination in the U.S.: Evidence from an Archive of Survey Experiment Studies http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2053168017753862</ref>

Persecutions of albinos

In some African countries, albinos are extensively persecuted due to their white skin color.

Hate crime

See the Hate crime article regarding statistics showing Whites having a disproportionate risk of being the victims of hate and interracial crimes.

Also, as noted there, some hate crimes are fabricated. This likely also applies to accusations of racism in general.

South Africa and Zimbabwe

Slavery, colonialism, eugenics, social Darwinism, subhumans, and master race

Racism has been argued to be an important aspect of topics such as slavery, colonialism, eugenics, social Darwinism, subhumans, and master race. There are various less politically correct views on these topics and their argued associations with racism. See the articles on these topics.

IQ and "prejudice"

Prejudice has sometimes been claimed to be associated with low IQ, such as in an often cited 2012 study.<ref>Hodson, G., & Busseri, M. A. (2012). Bright minds and dark attitudes lower cognitive ability predicts greater prejudice through right-wing ideology and low intergroup contact. Psychological Science, 23(2), 187-195. http://pss.sagepub.com/content/23/2/187.short </ref> The study has been criticized for a variety of different reasons and has been described as ”a textbook example of confused data, unrecognized bias, and ignorance of statistics“ and ”competition for the worst use of statistics in an original paper.“<ref>William M Briggs. Low IQ & Liberal Beliefs Linked To Poor Research? Posted on 27 January 2012. http://wmbriggs.com/blog/?p=5118</ref>

A 2016 study argued that smart people are not less racist, but simply better at concealing this.<ref>Wodtke, G. T. (2016). Are Smart People Less Racist? Verbal Ability, Anti-Black Prejudice, and the Principle-Policy Paradox. Social Problems, 63(1), 21-45. http://socpro.oxfordjournals.org/content/63/1/21.abstract</ref>

A 2006 study found that the greater the education of White parents, the more likely they will remove their children from public schools as the percentage of Black students increases. More-educated Whites also lived in more White neighborhoods than less-educated Whites.<ref>Surprise, Surprise! Highly educated white liberals are hypocrites https://isteve.blogspot.co.uk/2006/12/surprise-surprise-highly-educated.html</ref>

See also Political correctness: IQ and political correctness.

"Scientific racism"

“Scientific racism” is supposed to be ”the use of scientific techniques and hypotheses to support or justify the belief in racism, racial inferiority, or racial superiority, or alternatively the practice of classifying individuals of different phenotypes into discrete races“.

The term can be seen as a form of ad hominem against politically incorrect group statistics or politically incorrect race research results which are often simply branded as “racism” rather than being answered with factual arguments.

Race research and the origin of racism

It has sometimes been argued that race and racism did not exist before scientists started studying race. Thus, they would be recent social constructs. Regarding the early history of the concept of race, see the race article. Regarding racism, this has been argued to have existed in numerous early cultures and long before scientists started studying race. Some early examples of views and actions that today would be considered racism can be found in the Jewish Bible and in the Indian Vedas (which according the Aryan invasion theory describe the conquest of Northern India by a race with a lighter skin color and which caused the development of the partially racially based Indian caste system).<ref name=reality>Vincent Sarich och Frank Miele. Race: The Reality of Human Differences. 2004. Westview Press.</ref><ref name=R2000>J. Philippe Rushton. Race, Evolution, and Behavior: A Life History Perspective. 1997. Transaction Publishers.</ref><ref name=antiq>Benjamin Isaac. Collective Degradation: Slavery and the Construction of Race. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Gilder Lehrman Center International Conference at Yale University. November 7-8, 2003. http://www.yale.edu/glc/events/race/Isaac.pdf</ref>

The religiously based ”curse of Ham“, used as a justification for slavery of and/or racism against Blacks, existed in Jewish, Christian, and Muslim sources long before any scientific study of race.

One argument against racism existing in Ancient Greece/Ancient Rome is the absence of Greek/Latin words corresponding to negative English words such as “racism” and “prejudice”. This has however been explained as there simply being no opposition in antiquity to well-documented “racist” views, such that different races have different physical and mental characteristics or that one important explanation for the argued positive characteristics and historical successes of the Greeks, the Romans, and the Germans was that these groups had previously avoided race mixing.<ref name=antiq/>

As discussed in the Race article, the predominant stated view of early scientific race taxonomists was that the observed race differences were completely due to environmental differences.<ref name=TNoR>John Fuerst. (2015). “The Nature of Race: the Genealogy of the Concept and the Biological Construct’s Contemporaneous Utility”. Submitted: December 25, 2014. Published: June 18, 2015. Open Behavioral Genetics. http://openpsych.net/OBG/2015/06/the-nature-of-race/</ref> This makes it more difficult to claim that such race classification in itself would have caused the creation of racism.

The introduction of the scientific study of race, race differences being viewed as partially caused by hereditary differences, and the discovery of natural selection and evolution were not accompanied by an increase in slavery. On the contrary, they occurred at the same time as Whites abolished slavery throughout the whole world.

Also regarding racial theories and justification of slavery, European authorities rejected both “pre-Adamite” Amerindian theories and polygenesis racial theories, instead supporting common creation and descent, the worst alternative if trying to find a justification for slavery.<ref>Science Strikes Back https://www.amren.com/news/2018/07/race-reality-of-human-differences-sarich-miele/</ref>

Regarding why racism exists and existed long before any race research, theories related to racial genetic interests provide possible genetic explanations for racism or at least for why individuals typically consider their own ethnicity/race to be more important than other ethnicities/races. An implication of the related genetic similarity theory is that humans will feel closer and have more altruism towards genetically similar persons, regardless of if races exist or not.

See also Racial genetic interests: Race and perception on various kinds of research on differences regarding perception, empathy, and preference for other individuals, depending on if they are of the same race or not, even in infants.

Race research is in itself a describing science and not a political ideology advocating a particular kind of desirable society. This also applies to explanations for race differences using arguments from evolutionary psychology and sociobiology. If researchers argue that certain evolutionary processes have caused race differences, then this does not imply that such processes are necessarily desirable or necessarily advocated by race researchers as models for how human society should be. For example, that certain infectious diseases have been argued to have caused certain race differences does not imply that these infectious diseases are seen as desirable or advocated.

Race research results can be politically interpreted in various ways. Thus, research stating average IQ differences does not imply that the higher IQ groups have a moral right to exploit the lower IQ groups, but may be interpreted, for example, as the higher IQ groups having a moral obligation to help the lower IQ groups or be interpreted as not implying anything morally. Taking a non-race example, being very wealthy gives power and influence, but is usually not seen as implying a moral right to use this in order to exploit poor individuals.

It has furthermore been disputed that a lower achieving group gains from denying or concealing real biological differences. An increasingly complex society built on the assumption that everyone can do equally well means that they who do not have this ability have increasing trouble functioning in most areas of life. They need various forms of special assistance which is not possible as long as the need is denied to exist.<ref name=G2005/><ref>FLYNN, CECI, AND TURKHEIMER ON RACE AND INTELLIGENCE: OPENING MOVES</ref> Instead of lessening groups conflicts, it has been argued that denying real biological differences may cause people to seek something to blame, causing hostility between groups. In the US, examples being the views that Whites are racist or Blacks are lazy.<ref name=G2005>What if the Hereditarian Hypothesis Is True? Linda S. Gottfredson, Psychology, Public Policy, and Law Volume 11, Issue 2, June 2005, Pages 311-319</ref> Very large groups conflicts and group killings occurred in the Communist states which denied genetic explanations for group differences and instead blamed class exploitation. Other possible negative effects for individuals and societies from censoring/ignoring race research due to fear of racism include being unaware of research on, for example, [[ethnic heterogeneity] and outbreeding depression.

Several IQ researchers have expressed very pessimistic views regarding the future of Western civilization, in part due to political correctness regarding race differences. See Dysgenics: Pessimism regarding the future of Western civilization.

Regarding race and intelligence specifically, there are also many other arguments against equating a partially genetic explanation with racism, see the linked article.<ref>The Fallacy of Equating the Hereditarian Hypothesis with Racism https://www.mdpi.com/2624-8611/1/1/18/htm</ref>

See also

Supremacism

Fair Use References are embedded in the above article as footnotes.



NavBar Ethnically divided societies

Ethnically divided societies



Template White guilt

Race Racism

Racismo Rasism



Racism is prejudice and discrimination based on race. An example is a claim that of inferiority or superiority based on the color of one's skin. Another example was the Jim Crow laws. Racism means the hatred of another person because of the color of his or her skin; some used the term racism for perceived difference in origin.

The doctrine of substantive due process in United States constitutional law can be used to invalidate racist laws. Alternately, the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment can be used to do the same. See e.g. Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954). Psychology

Videos about Racism

Support for Racism

Liberals attempt to divide the races into different social classes through the use of racial quotas and affirmative action. While most Americans look forward to a “post-racial America,” where race is not a factor in a person's success, liberal interests demand that people's success depend on government intervention, and so attempt to artificially affect hiring and admissions decisions in order to keep certain people dependent on and grateful to the government for their livelihoods.

It is unknown why liberals feel the need to interfere in the lives and careers of hard-working African Americans, but it is likely due to a condescending attitude towards the African American community, which boasts some of the highest church attendance rates in the country and is therefore directly opposed to the liberal secularist agenda.

Creativity, which is espoused by the Creativity Movement, is an atheistic white racist movement.<ref name=“Atheistic”>

</ref><ref name=“Religion”>

</ref><ref name=“Atheism”>

</ref>

Opposition to Racism

Laird Wilcox wrote:

  • There is a humanist anti-racism that focuses on reconciliation and healing, that works to bring people together, that functions openly and honestly without the use of dossiers, spies, specious lawsuits, disinformation, and that recognizes the rights of individuals whether they agree with one another or not. This is the anti-racism of good neighbors, of people helping people, of community goodwill, and of the realization that we are all human beings. … On the other hand, there is a vindictive and corrupt anti-racism that focuses on paybacks and punishment, that demonizes and degrades its critics, that attempts to carve out special rights for its constituency, that opposes free and open discussion of ideas, that attempts to silence, censor and stifle its opposition through intimidation and harassment, and encourages law enforcement scrutiny of opponents because of their alleged values, opinions and beliefs.<ref>The Watchdogs: A Close Look at Anti-Racist “Watchdog” Groups, Laird Wilcox, Editorial Research Service, 1999, pg. 3. ISBN 0-993592-96-5.</ref>

American writers and filmmakers have created many works to undermine racism. Uncle Tom's Cabin opposed slavery. Huckleberry Finn showed a black man as a moral equal to whites. ”Song of the South“ was Disney's first live action film starring a black man (the actor received a special Oscar for his performance).

Prejudice against ethnic groups

Nicolas Sarkozy was accused of “racism” for ordering closure of 300 gypsy camps and expulsion of Roma after riot.<ref>Sarkozy accused of racism for ordering closure of 300 illegal gypsy camps and expulsion of Roma after riot.</ref> Sarkozy was behind the controversial measure to deport Roma gypsies, breaching European immigration laws. European Union officials accused Sarkozy of “fanning xenophobia ” in his move to deport the Roma.<ref>French President Nicolas Sarkozy, 'too many foreigners in France'.</ref>

<blockquote> “too many foreigners in France.” Nicolas Sarkozy.<ref>[[Ibidem]]</ref> </blockquote>

In very early January of 2017, an extremely horrific and disturbing racist hate crime occurred when four black teens brutally beat and tortured an 18-year-old mentally-disabled white teenager in Chicago. It was a horrific hate crime, and one of the many, many horrifying things they did was tell the person to curse Donald Trump and white people.<ref>4 charged with hate crimes in kidnap, torture of mentally disabled man. WND. January 4, 2017. Retrieved January 6, 2017.</ref> It was charged as hate crime<ref>Hate crime charges filed in Chicago beating streamed on Facebook Live. Fox News. January 5, 2017. Retrieved January 6, 2017.</ref> and they were denied bail.<ref>Pathieu, Diane; Hope, Leah (January 6 2017). Judge denies bail for 4 Chicago Facebook Live torture suspects. ABC 7. Retrieved January 6, 2017.</ref> It was one of many anti-Trump hate-crimes after the 2016 election.<ref>Facebook Live attack the latest in string of anti-Trump assaults. Fox News. January 5, 2017. Retrieved January 6, 2017.</ref>

See also

External links

References

<references/>

Liberal Traits

racism.txt · Last modified: 2020/03/12 18:41 (external edit)