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Pepper spray is an inflammatory based upon Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) or Capsasin, the spice found in hot peppers. It causes burning and pain to the soft tissues of the eyes, nose and mouth. It is typically dispensed in aerosol form from small canisters for self-defense. Pepper spray is preferred for its less-than-lethal nature as well as its often unrestricted availability.

Some states control sales of pepper spray and the quantity that may be carried on your person. Nanny states such as New York limit where pepper spray may be purchased and how much may be carried. Refer to your state's laws before buying pepper spray.

Its inflammatory effects cause the eyes to close, taking away vision. This temporary blindness allows officers to more easily restrain subjects and permits people using pepper spray for self-defense an opportunity to escape. It is considered a less-than-lethal agent.

Variants

PAVA

OC

Mace

Use & Effects

Aerosol canisters project a stream, mist or foam of OC that is aimed at the face, especially the eyes, nose, and mouth, of an attacker. Once the target has been hit, pain and inflammation may occur. Pepper spray is primarily a distraction technique best followed up by either fight or flight. It should not be relied upon as the primary means of self defense.

Criticism

Some consider pepper spray to be an inadequate form of defense due to its inability to stop a motivated attacker, particularly if the attacker has been exposed to the chemical before or is immune to the effects for one reason or another. Studies show that persons under the influence of alcohol, drugs or who are emotionally/mentally disturbed may not feel the full effects of pepper spray. Thus owners of pepper spray can have an illegitimate sense of security.

See Also

References

Defense


Pepper Spray Decontamination and Medical Treatment, by D.F.

“Pepper spray, also known as OC spray (from “Oleoresin capsicum”), OC gas, and capsicum spray, is a lachrymatory agent (a chemical compound that irritates the eyes to cause tears, pain, and even temporary blindness), and it is used in riot control, crowd control, and personal self-defense, including defense against dogs and bears. Its inflammatory effects cause the eyes to close, taking away vision. This temporary blindness allows officers to more easily restrain subjects and permits persons using pepper spray for self-defense an opportunity to escape. (The following is the regimen I use for decon after field training in the agencies I work with.) First, the patient is warned to not rub their eyes, since this increases burn and exposure to active oils in the spray. The eyes and face are then rinsed with a 50% to 50% ratio of cool water and Maalox – plain, unflavored Maalox. The aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide in the Maalox immediately start to decrease pain by blocking the burning sensation; the exact mechanism is unknown but is suspected to be a chemical binding, like the antacid effect and neutralizing effect. This temporary cessation of pain allows for further treatment. Dawn dish detergent and cool water are used 50% to 50% to wash the entire outside face, until all oils from the pepper gas are removed. Then, follow-up washing with luke warm water alone is done for 10 minutes, and the eyes are individually rinsed with Bausch and Lomb or other occular wash; we use the rinse agent only and nothing containing glycerin, since this is oil-based and would cause particles of Oleoresin Capsicum to reactivate or remain fixed in the eye.

There are other treatment protocols, like MOFIBA– mineral oil followed immediately by alcohol. Firmly wipe the pepper spray off the skin using a gauze pad, clean cloth, or paper towel moistened well with mineral oil. (The oil binds to the pepper spray, making it easier to remove.) Then, immediately wipe off all the mineral oil with a fresh gauze pad or cloth moistened well with isopropyl rubbing alcohol (the kind you can buy in a drugstore). If a large area of the skin is exposed, do small sections at a time in order to get the mineral oil off as quickly as possible. Some people like to follow with a water rinse, since alcohol can irritate the skin.

I just thought everyone would like to know of a regimen that is field tested and seems to work very well. This treatment was field tested in a law enforcement agency I recently retired from. Therefore, the regimen is proven and not subject to conjecture. This information could be useful in a TEOTWAWKI situation, since criminals are fond of using pepper gas to disable their victims, and an attack with pepper agent might precede a more forceful attack. Hence, being able to quickly and effectively decontaminate could save your family’s lives.”

Fair Use Source: http://survivalblog.com/guest-article-pepper-spray-decontamination-and-medical-treatment-by-d-f/


Snippet from Wikipedia: Pepper spray

Pepper spray (also known as capsaicin spray or capsicum spray) is a lachrymatory agent (a chemical compound that irritates the eyes to cause a burning sensation, pain, and temporary blindness) used in policing, riot control, crowd control, and self-defense, including defense against dogs and bears. Its inflammatory effects cause the eyes to close, taking away vision. This temporary blindness allows officers to more easily restrain subjects and permits people in danger to use pepper spray in self-defense for an opportunity to escape. It also causes temporary discomfort and burning of the lungs which causes shortness of breath.

Pepper spray was engineered into a weapons grade chemical agent by Kamran Loghman when he worked for the FBI in the 1980s. Loghman also wrote the guide for police departments on how it should be used. After police sprayed docile protestors at University of California in 2011, Loghman came to regret his work and said, "I have never seen such an inappropriate and improper use of chemical agents".

Although considered a less-than-lethal agent, it has been deadly in rare cases; and being pepper sprayed may have been a contributing factor in a number of other deaths.

Pepper spray, also known as OC spray (from “oleoresin capsicum”), OC gas, and capsicum spray, is a lachrymatory agent (a chemical compound that irritates the eyes to cause tears, pain, and temporary blindness) used in policing, riot control, crowd control, and personal self-defense, including defense against dogs and bears.<ref>

</ref><ref>

</ref>

Its inflammatory effects cause the eyes to close, taking away vision. This temporary blindness allows officers to more easily restrain subjects and permits people using pepper spray for self-defense an opportunity to escape. Although considered a less-than-lethal agent, concerns have been raised about a number of deaths where being pepper sprayed may have been a contributing factor.<ref name=“ACLU”>http://www.aclu-sc.org/issues/police-practices/pepper-spray/</ref> The actual compound, however, is not lethal.

Components

The active ingredient in pepper spray is capsaicin, which is a chemical derived from the fruit of plants in the Capsicum genus, including chilis. Extraction of oleoresin capsicum from peppers requires capsicum to be finely ground, from which capsaicin is then extracted using an organic solvent such as ethanol. The solvent is then evaporated, and the remaining waxlike resin is the oleoresin capsicum.

An emulsifier such as propylene glycol is used to suspend the OC in water, and pressurized to make it aerosol in pepper spray. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method is used to measure the amount of capsaicin and major capsaicinoids within pepper sprays.

Determining the strength of different manufactures of pepper sprays can be confusing. The best and possibly the only reliable method is using the CRC of the product. The federal government of the United States has determined that Bear Attack Deterrent Sprays must contain at least 1.0% Capsaicin and Related Capsaicinoids (CRC). CRC does not measure the amount of Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) within the formulation. Instead, CRC is the heat bearing and pain producing components of the OC.

The federal government of the United States makes no mention of SHU (Scoville heat units) or OC in their requirements, only CRC. Some manufactures may show a very high percentage of OC (Oleoresin Capsicum) and, although OC is the active ingredient within the formulation, it does not indicate pepper spray strength.

The OC percentage only measures the amount of peppers contained in the defense spray, not the strength, pungency or effectiveness of the product. Other companies may show a high SHU, but again this is deceiving. The SHU is measured at the base resin and not by what comes out of the aerosol. The rated high heat of the resin can is diluted down depending on how much of it is put in the can

.

Counterparts

There are several counterparts of pepper spray developed and legal to posses in some countries:

    • Widely used as a self-defense chemical agent spray in Russia.
      • Its effectiveness compared to natural pepper spray is unclear.
  • : PSI (“Poly Spray Imobilizante” - poly immobilizing spray in Portuguese)

    • A defensive spray that uses non-controlled chemical compounds, extracted from lemons and onions
  • : ACDC (“adesivo para controle de distúrbios civis” - civilian disorder control adhesive in Portuguese)

    • A non-toxic adhesive foam compound that block the nostrils and keep the eyes closed

Effects

training after being exposed to pepper spray.]] Pepper spray is an inflammatory agent. It causes immediate closing of the eyes, difficulty breathing, runny nose, and coughing.<ref name=“Effects Of Pepper Spray”>

</ref> The duration of its effects depends on the strength of the spray but the average full effect lasts around thirty to forty-five minutes, with diminished effects lasting for hours.

The Journal of Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science published a study that concluded that single exposure of the eye to OC is harmless, but repeated exposure can result in long-lasting changes in corneal sensitivity. They found no lasting decrease in visual acuity.<ref>

</ref>

The European Parliament Scientific and Technological Options Assessment (STOA) published in 1998 “An Appraisal of Technologies of Political Control”<ref>

</ref> with extensive information on pepper spray and tear gas. They write:

<blockquote>The effects of pepper spray are far more severe, including temporary blindness which lasts from 15–30 minutes, a burning sensation of the skin which lasts from 45 to 60 minutes, upper body spasms which force a person to bend forward and uncontrollable coughing making it difficult to breathe or speak for between 3 to 15 minutes.</blockquote>

For those with asthma, taking other drugs, or subject to restraining techniques that restrict the breathing passages, there is a risk of death. The Los Angeles Times reported in 1995 at least 61 deaths associated with police use of pepper spray since 1990 in the USA.<ref>Los Angeles Times June 18, 1995</ref> The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) documented 27 people in police custody who died after exposure to pepper spray in California since 1993.<ref name=“ACLU”/><ref>ACLU, Oleoresin Capsicum - Pepper Spray Update, More Fatalities, More Questions, June, 1995, p. 2.</ref><ref name=“ACLU_1995”>“Pepper spray's lethal legacy” in Ottawa Citizen. October 22, 1998, p. A1.</ref> However, the ACLU report counts any death occurring within hours of exposure to pepper spray. In all 27 cases, the coroners' report listed other factors as the primary cause of death, though in some cases the use of pepper spray may have been a contributing factor.<ref name=“ACLU”/>

The US Army concluded, in a 1993 Aberdeen Proving Ground study, that pepper spray could cause “[m]utagenic effects, carcinogenic effects, sensitization, cardiovascular and pulmonary toxicity, neurotoxicity, as well as possible human fatalities. There is a risk in using this product on a large and varied population”.<ref>Salem, 1993</ref> However, the pepper spray was widely approved in the US despite the reservations of the US military scientists after it passed FBI tests in 1991. As of 1999, it was in use by more than 2,000 public safety agencies.<ref>

Archived at http://web.archive.org/web/20000817004624/http://www.ncmedicaljournal.com/Smith-OK.htm</ref>

The head of the FBI's Less-Than-Lethal Weapons Program at the time of the 1991 study, Special Agent Thomas W. W. Ward, was fired by the FBI and was sentenced to two months in prison for receiving payments from a peppergas manufacturer while conducting and authoring the FBI study that eventually approved pepper spray for FBI use.<ref name=“ACLU_1995”/><ref>“Former F.B.I. Agent Is Sentenced to Prison”, The New York Times. May 20, 1996, p. B8.</ref><ref>“Ex-FBI Agent Pleads Guilty in Conflict-of-Interest Case”, The Washington Post. February 13, 1996, p. A12.</ref> Prosecutors said that from December 1989 through 1990, Ward received about $5,000 a month for a total of $57,500, from Luckey Police Products, a Fort Lauderdale, Florida-based company that was a major producer and supplier of pepper spray. The payments were paid through a Florida company owned by Ward's wife.<ref>“Pepper spray study is tainted”, San Francisco Chronicle. May 20, 1996, p. B8.</ref>

Pepper spray has been associated with positional asphyxiation of individuals in police custody. There is much debate over the actual “cause” of death in these cases. There have been few controlled clinical studies of the human health effects of pepper spray marketed for police use, and those studies are contradictory. Some studies have found no harmful effects beyond the effects described above.<ref>Reay DT. Forensic pathology, part 1: death in custody. Clinics in Lab Med 1998;18:19–20; Watson WA, Stremel KR, and Westdorp EJ. Oleoresin capsicum (cap-stun) toxicity from aerosol exposures. Ann Pharmacotherapy 1996;30:733–5.</ref>

Direct close-range spray can cause more serious eye irritation by attacking the cornea with a concentrated stream of liquid (the so-called “hydraulic needle” effect). Some brands have addressed this problem by means of an elliptically cone-shaped spray pattern.

Acute response

For individuals not previously exposed to OC effects, the general feelings after being sprayed can be best likened to being “set alight”. The initial reaction should the spray be directed at the face, is the completely involuntary closing of the eyes (sometimes described as leading to a disconcerting sensation of the eyelids “bubbling and boiling” as the chemical acts on the skin), an instant sensation of the restriction of the airways and the general feeling of sudden and intense, searing pain about the face, nose, and throat. Coughing almost always follows the initial spray

.

Subsequent breaths through the nose or mouth leads to ingestion of the chemical, which feeds the feeling of choking. Police are trained to repeatedly instruct targets to “breathe normally” if they complain of difficulty, as the shock of the exposure can generate considerable panic as opposed to actual physical symptoms

.

Treatment

Capsaicin is not soluble in water, and even large volumes of water will not wash it off. In general, victims are encouraged to blink vigorously in order to encourage tears, which will help flush the irritant from the eyes.

A formal study of five often-recommended treatments for skin pain (Maalox, 2% lidocaine gel, baby shampoo, milk, or water) concluded that:<ref>

</ref><ref>

</ref> :“…there was no significant difference in pain relief provided by five different treatment regimens. Time after exposure appeared to be the best predictor for decrease in pain…”

Using contact lens solution seems to help ocular relief.

To avoid rubbing the spray into the skin, thereby prolonging the burning sensation, and, in order to not spread the compound to other parts of the body, victims should try to avoid touching affected areas. There are also wipes manufactured<ref>Fox Labs: Pepper Spray Manufacturer.</ref> for the express purpose of serving to decontaminate someone having received a dose of pepper spray. Many ambulance services and emergency departments use baby shampoo to remove the spray and with generally good effect. Some of the OC and CS will remain in the respiratory system, but a recovery of vision and the coordination of the eyes can be expected within 7 to 15 minutes.<ref>Young, D., Police Marksman Magazine, July/August 1995 Issue.</ref>

Some “triple-action” pepper sprays also contain “tear gas” (CS gas), which can be neutralized with sodium metabisulfite (Campden tablets, used in homebrewing), though it is not water-soluble either and must be washed off using the same procedure as for pepper spray.

Usage

Pepper spray typically comes in canisters, which are often small enough to be carried or concealed in a pocket or purse. Pepper spray can also be purchased concealed in items such as rings. There are also pepper spray projectiles available, which can be fired from a paintball gun. It has been used for years against demonstrators. Many such canisters also contain dyes, either visible or UV-reactive, to mark an attacker's skin and/or clothing to enhance identification by police.

Legality

Pepper spray is banned for use in war by Article I.5 of the Chemical Weapons Convention, which bans the use of all riot control agents in warfare whether lethal or less-than-lethal.<ref name=OPCW>

</ref> In the US, when pepper spray is used in the workplace, OSHA requires a pepper spray “Material Safety Data Sheet” (MSDS) be available to all employees.<ref name=MSDS>

</ref>

Asia

  • Bangladesh: Forbidden for civilians and it is used only by the police
    • Bengal Police started using pepper spray to control opposition movement
  • China: Forbidden for civilians and it is used only by law enforcement agencies
  • Hong Kong: Forbidden for civilians and legal to possess and use by only the members of Disciplined Services when on duty.
    • Such devices are classified as “arms” under the “Laws of Hong Kong”. Chap 238 Firearms and Ammunition Ordinance. Without a valid licence from the Hong Kong Police Force, it is a crime to possess and can result in a fine of $100,000 and to imprisonment for 14 years.<ref>

      </ref>

    • They are sold via government-approved companies after performing a background verification.<ref>

      </ref>

  • Iran: Forbidden for civilians and it is used only by the police.
  • Philippines: Possession and usage for self-defense is legal, and it is freely available in stores.
  • Indonesia: Legal, but there are restrictions on its sale and possession.
  • Mongolia: Possession and usage for self-defense is legal, and it is freely available in stores.
  • Thailand: Usage for self-defense is legal, and it is freely available in stores.
    • Possession in a public place can be punished by confiscation and a fine.
  • Taiwan: Legal for self-defense, and it is available in some shops.
  • Malaysia: Use and possession of pepper spray for self-defense is legal
    • It is an offence to use a pepper spray on anyone for reasons other than self-defence.
  • Saudi Arabia: Use and possession of pepper spray for self-defense is legal
    • It is an offence to use a pepper spray on anyone for reasons other than self-defence.
  • South Korea, pepper sprays containing OC is legal
    • Gas-gun types need a licence to own
    • CS is available only for police and private security firms.
  • Japan: There are no laws against possession or use, but using it could result in imprisonment depending on the damage caused to the target.
  • Singapore, travellers are prohibited from bringing pepper spray into the country, and it is illegal for the public to possess.
  • Israel: OC and CS spray cans may be purchased by any member of the public without restriction and carried in public.
    • In the 1980s, a firearms license was required for doing so, but since then these sprays have been deregulated.

Europe

  • Belgium: Classified as a prohibited weapon
    • Possession is illegal for anyone other than police officers, police agents (assistant police officers) <ref>

      </ref> and security officers of public transport companies to carry a capsicum spray. is also authorised after obtaining permission from the Minister of Internal Affairs.<ref>K.B. of 10 june 2006 tot regeling van het model, de inhoud, de wijze van dragen en het gebruik van spuitbussen en handboeien door de leden van de veiligheidsdiensten van de openbare vervoersmaatschappijen(B.S. 20 june 2006.</ref>

  • Czech Republic: Possession is legal.
    • Police also encourage vulnerable groups like pensioners and women to carry pepper spray.<ref>

      </ref>

  • Denmark, possession is illegal for private citizens.<ref>

    </ref> As of 2008, police officers began to carry pepper spray as part of their standard equipment.

  • France, it is legal for anyone over the age of 18 to buy a pepper spray in an armoury or military surplus store.
    • It is classified as a Category 6 Weapon in French law and if the aerosol contains more than 100ml, it is classed as an offensive weapon, possession in a public place can be punished by confiscation and a fine.
      • However, if it contains less than 100ml, while still a Category 6 Weapon, it is not classed as a punishable offence for the purposes of the Weapons law, so if you are controlled, it will be confiscated with maybe a verbal warning given.
  • Finland: possession of pepper spray requires a license.
    • Licenses are issued for defensive purposes and to individuals working jobs where such a device is needed such as the private security sector.<ref>

      </ref>

      • However, the Finnish Supreme Court has recently ruled in KKO:2010:7 that owning a pepper spray in itself is not a punishable act; but, on the other hand, carrying one can be punished as a device capable of harming other people.
  • Germany, pepper sprays labeled for the purpose of defense against animals may be owned and carried by anyone (even minors). Such sprays are not legally considered as weapons §1. Carrying it at (or on the way to and from) demonstrations may still be punished.<ref>§2 VersammlG.</ref>
    • Sprays that are not labelled “animal-defence spray” or do not bear the test mark of the Materialprüfungsanstalt (MPA, material testing institute) are classified as prohibited weapons.
      • Justified use against humans as self-defense is allowed.<ref>§32 StGB</ref>
        • CS sprays bearing a test mark of the MPA may be owned and carried by anyone over the age of 14.<ref name=“weapons”>Ministerium des Inneren on Weapon Laws (german).</ref>
  • Greece: Illegal. Such items will be confiscated and may result in detention and arrest.
  • Hungary: Reserved for law enforcement (including civilian members of the auxiliary police)
  • Iceland: Possession of pepper spray is illegal for private citizens.
    • Police officers carry pepper spray as part of their standard equipment.
  • Ireland: Possession of this spray by persons other than Gardaí is an offence under the Firearms and Offensive Weapons Act.<ref>{http://www.justice.ie/en/JELR/Pages/Firearms_and_ammunition}</ref>
  • Italy: Any citizen over 16 years of age without a criminal record could possess, carry and purchase any OC-based compounds and personal defence devices that respond to the following criteria:
    • Containing a payload not exceeding 20 ml., with a percentage of Oleoresin Capsicum not exceeding 10% and a maximum concentration of capsaicin and capsaicinoid substances not exceeding 2,5%;
      • Containing no flammable, corrosive, toxic or carcinogenic substances, and no other aggressive chemical compound than OC itself;
        • Being sealed when sold and featuring a safety device against accidental discharge;
          • Featuring a range not exceeding 3 metres.<ref>

            </ref>

  • Latvia: Classified as a self-defense device
    • Can be bought and carried by anyone over 16 years of age.
    • Pepper spray handguns can be bought and carried without any license by anyone over 18.
  • Malta: Illegal for use by the general public
    • There have been cases where the police force has been provided with it.
  • The Netherlands: Illegal for civilians to own and carry.
    • Only police officers trained in the specific use of pepper spray are allowed to carry and use it against civilians and animals.
  • Norway: Illegal for civilians.
    • Police officers are allowed to carry pepper spray as part of their standard equipment.
  • Poland: Called precisely in Polish Penal Code “a hand-held disabling gas thrower”, sprays are considered a weapon
    • Can be carried by anyone over 18 without further registration or permission.<ref>

      </ref>

  • Portugal: Civilians who do not have criminal records to get police permits to purchase from gun shops, carry, and use OC sprays with a maximum concentration of 5%.
    • CS is considered a weapon and is not permitted.
      • Police carry OC sprays of higher concentration.
  • Romania: Banned on sportive and cultural events, public transportation and entertainment locations (according to Penal Code 2012, art 372, (1), c).
  • Russia: Classified as a self-defense weapon and can be carried by anyone over 18.<ref>http://www.zakonrf.info/zoboruzhii/3/</ref>
  • Slovakia: Classified as a self-defense weapon
    • Available to anyone over 18.
      • Use against humans is officially prohibited.
  • Switzerland: Classified as a self-defense device (not a weapon) and can be carried by anyone after a registration as a user of such sprays.
  • Spain, approved pepper spray made with 5% CS is available to anyone older than 18 years.
    • OC pepper spray was recently adopted for some civilian use (e.g., one of 22&nbsp;grams, with no registration DGSP-07-22-SDP, is approved by the Ministry of Health and Consumption).
  • Sweden: Falls under firearm laws
    • May only be carried by police officers, prison officers, some security officers, and soldiers actively serving in the armed forces.
  • Turkey: Illegal for civilians.
    • Police forces usually use it.

North America

Canada

  • Any device designed to be used for the purpose of injuring, immobilizing or otherwise incapacitating any person by the discharge therefrom of

(a) tear gas, Mace or other gas, or (b) any liquid, spray, powder or other substance that is capable of injuring, immobilizing or otherwise incapacitating any person.

** Only law enforcement officers may legally carry or possess pepper spray labeled for use on persons. **

United States

  • California: Container holding the defense spray must contain no more than

    net weight of aerosol spray.<ref>California Penal Code, Section 12403.7</ref>

  • Massachusetts: Residents may purchase defense sprays only from licensed Firearms Dealers in that state, and must hold a valid Firearms Identification Card (FID) or License to Carry Firearms (LTC) to purchase or to possess outside of one's own private property.<ref>

    </ref>

    • It is classed as “ammunition”,<ref>

      </ref> unlicensed possession of which is punishable by up to 2 years in prison.<ref>

      </ref>

  • State of Michigan: Allows “reasonable use” of spray containing not more than 10% oleoresin capsicum to protect “a person or property under circumstances that would justify the person's use of physical force”.<ref>

    </ref>

  • State of New York: Can be legally possessed by any person age 18 or over
    • It must be purchased in person (i.e., cannot be purchased by mail-order or internet sale) either at a pharmacy or from a licensed firearm retailer (NY Penal Law 265.20 14 (a)), and the seller must keep a record of purchases.
      • The use of pepper spray to prevent a public official from performing his/her official duties is a class-E felony.
  • New Jersey: Non-felons over the age of 18 can possess a small amount of pepper spray, with no more than three-quarters of an ounce of chemical substance.
  • State of Washington: Persons over 18 may carry personal-protection spray devices.
    • Persons over age 14 may carry personal-protection spray devices with their legal guardian's consent.<ref>

      </ref>

  • Wisconsin: Tear gas is not permissible.
    • By regulation, OC products with a maximum OC concentration of 10% and weight range of oleoresin of capsicum and inert ingredients of 15-60&nbsp;grams are authorized. This is

      spray. Further, the product cannot be camouflaged, and must have a safety feature designed to prevent accidental discharge. The units may not have an effective range of over 20 feet and must have an effective range of six feet.

      • In addition there are certain labeling and packaging requirements, it must state cannot sell to anyone under 18 and the phone number of the manufacturer has to be on the label. The units must also be sold in sealed tamper-proof packages.<ref>

        </ref><ref>

        </ref>

In many (but not all) other states, pepper spray can be purchased at various stores and carried legally by anyone over 18. However, other states do not have requirements about age.

South America

  • Brazil: Classified as weapon by Federal Act n° 3665/2000 (Regulation for Fiscalization of Controlled Products). Only law enforcement officers and private security agents with recognized Less Lethal Weapons training certificate can carry it.
    • A Brazilian firm named Poly Defensor developed defensive sprays that uses non-controlled chemical compounds, making them being legal for civilian use.
  • Colombia: Could be sold without any kind of restriction to anyone older than 14 years.
    • The use of it hasn't been inducted on the law enforcement officer's arsenal.

Australia

  • Northern Territory: Prescribed by regulation to be a prohibited weapon under the Weapons Control Act.<ref>

    </ref>

    • This legislation makes it an offence for someone without permit, normally anyone who is not an officer of Police/Correctional Services/Customs/Defence, to carry a prohibited weapon.
  • State of Tasmania, possession of pepper spray by unauthorized persons is illegal, under an amendment of the Police Offences Act 1935, being classified as an, “Offensive weapon”. Likewise, possession of knives, batons and other any other instrument that may be considered, “Offensive Weapons” if they are possessed by an individual, in a Public Place, “Without lawful excuse”. This has led to confusion within the police force over what constitutes “legal excuse,” self-defense as a legal excuse to carry such items varies from one officer to the next. P
    • Pepper spray is commercially available without a license. Authority to possess and use Oleo-resin Capsicum devices remains with Tasmania Police Officers (As part of general-issue operational equipment), and Tasmanian Justice Department (H.M. Prisons) Officers.
  • Possession of pepper spray by individuals for self-defence has been legal in Western Australia since 28 March 2003, following the landmark Supreme Court decision in Hall v Collins [2003] WASCA 74 (4 April 2003).<ref>The West Australian, 28 March 2003</ref>
  • It is illegal to possess pepper spray in the remaining states.

New Zealand

  • Classed as a restricted weapon.<ref>

    </ref>

    • This means people would need a permit from the police to obtain or carry pepper spray.
      • Front-line police officers have routinely carried pepper spray since 1997. New Zealand Prison Service made OC spray available for use in approved situations in 2013.

See also

References

External links

Lachrymatory agents Self-defense Riot control agents


“See the TSA web site. You can carry pepper spray in checked luggage on some airlines. Local cops that are not trying to rip you off typically won't hassle you for having it for self-defense. It is not against the law in any part of the world that I am aware of. An Example: Two US guys off a private sailboat walking down the street in beautiful downtown Cartegena, Colombia in broad daylight when five thugs armed with knives tried to pull them into an alley to have their dastardly way. The sailors applied pepper spray and fled easily. The cops were televised grinning and slapping the sailors' backs in congratulation for having foiled the crooks. The reports talked a lot about the fact that the sailors had used pepper spray, and marveling at the fact that the pepper spray had so effectively disabled the crooks that they were still coughing and spitting 20 minutes later when the cops arrested them.

The small, compressed gas capsicum pepper spray canister can easily fit in the pocket, even on a key chain (see EDC) and is available anywhere. These canisters are usually available for purchase in any country, perhaps in a salvage/surplus/sporting goods retailer. If you prefer, It is legal to carry a small plastic bottle or baggie with cayenne pepper in checked luggage on an airplane. You could also carry an EMPTY plastic squeeze bottle, and mix up a little cocktail in the bottle with the pepper when you get access to some water at your location. I haven't used it on humans, but it worked really, really well on uncontrolled dogs trying to chase me down the street. Again, carry these items in checked luggage only.

The good news is that accurately applied pepper compounds really work. I have seen very tall, large muscle bound guys rolling on the ground screaming for their mommy, while the petite 4 foot 9 inch lady at their side is just crying quietly. The bad news is, don't bring pepper spray to a gunfight. Also, I have used pepper spray on guys lit to the gills on crystal meth doesn't work. Doesn't even slow 'em down. A really, really drunk Mejicano I used it on also didn't seem to notice.

Like anything else, pepper spray defense is an excellent option for most people, and can be considered legal almost everywhere. However, it requires good judgment and adult behavior.”

Fair Use Source: http://www.survivalblog.com/2009/10/travel_security_by_capnrick_in.html


See also Invest in Tangibles - Knives are part of the Bullets (Self Defense) part of Beans-Bullets-Bandaids-Bullion-Books

See also EDC, Weapons (Personal defense weapon), Armed self-defense, Firearms, Concealed carry, Open Carry, Rifle, Shotgun, Handgun, Body armor, Knives, Neck Knife, Boot Knife, Switchblade, Throwing knife, Ballistic knife, Pepper Spray-Mace (spray), PAVA spray, Stun Gun, Taser, Tranquilizer gun, Archery, Crossbow, Slingshot, Airgun, BB gun, Airsoft gun, Paintball gun, Blow gun, Bodyguard, Hand to hand combat-Martial Arts, Filipino martial arts, Kickboxing, List of Taekwondo techniques, Nunchuku, Baton, Walking Cane, Sword, Tactical Flashlight, Laser pointer, Blackjack-Tactical Slapper- Slapjack (weapon), Kubotan-Self Defense Keychain, Club (weapon), Baseball bat (weapon), Weighted-knuckle glove, Brass knuckles, Peroneal strike, Hiatt speedcuffs, Millwall brick, Stun grenade, Guard dog, Physical security, Door security, Intrusion alarm, Safe room, Video surveillance systems - CCTV, Castle doctrine, Stand-your-ground law, Duty to retreat, Non-aggression principle, Self-preservation, Sell your cloak and buy a sword, Legal and moral aspects of Self-Defense, Unarmed self-defense, Anti-theft system, Armored car, Digital self-defense, Gated community, GPS tracking unit, Secure telephone, Defense wound, Second Amendment


General References

Based on research from diverse Fair Use Disclaimer Sources:

Snippet from Wikipedia: Pepper spray

Pepper spray (also known as capsaicin spray or capsicum spray) is a lachrymatory agent (a chemical compound that irritates the eyes to cause a burning sensation, pain, and temporary blindness) used in policing, riot control, crowd control, and self-defense, including defense against dogs and bears. Its inflammatory effects cause the eyes to close, taking away vision. This temporary blindness allows officers to more easily restrain subjects and permits people in danger to use pepper spray in self-defense for an opportunity to escape. It also causes temporary discomfort and burning of the lungs which causes shortness of breath.

Pepper spray was engineered into a weapons grade chemical agent by Kamran Loghman when he worked for the FBI in the 1980s. Loghman also wrote the guide for police departments on how it should be used. After police sprayed docile protestors at University of California in 2011, Loghman came to regret his work and said, "I have never seen such an inappropriate and improper use of chemical agents".

Although considered a less-than-lethal agent, it has been deadly in rare cases; and being pepper sprayed may have been a contributing factor in a number of other deaths.

James Wesley Rawles' site:survivalblog.com "Pepper Spray"

Jack Spirko's http://www.thesurvivalpodcast.com "Pepper Spray"

Jack Spirko's http://www.thesurvivalpodcast.com/forum "Pepper Spray"

MD Creekmore's site: http://thesurvivalistblog.net "Pepper Spray"

"Pepper Spray"

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Dr. Bones & Nurse Amy's http://www.doomandbloom.net "Pepper Spray"

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Fernando Aguirre FerFal's http://ferfal.blogspot.com “Pepper Spray” and http://modernsurvivalonline.com “Pepper Spray”

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Jeff Quinn's http://www.gunblast.com "Pepper Spray"

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https://gunowners.org "Pepper Spray"

http://capwiz.com/gunowners "Pepper Spray"

Pepper Spray

pepper_spray.txt · Last modified: 2020/03/12 18:37 (external edit)