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Snippet from Wikipedia: Muzzle rise

Muzzle rise, muzzle flip or muzzle climb refer to the tendency of a firearm's or airgun's muzzle (front end of the barrel) to rise up after firing.

Muzzle climb more specifically refers to the elevation of muzzle of the firearm, caused by combined recoil from multiple shots being fired in quick succession. It has an adverse effect on accuracy of automatic and rapid-fire semi-automatic firearms, causing a target to be overshot.

The primary reason for muzzle rise is that for nearly all guns, the bore axis (longitudinal centerline of the barrel) is slightly above the gun's center of mass, while the contact points between the shooter and the gun (e.g. grips and stock) are often all below the center of mass. When the gun is fired, the bullet motion and the escaping propellant gases exert a reactional recoil directly backwards along the bore axis, while the countering forward push from the shooter's hands and body are well below it. This creates a couple, a rotational torque around the center of mass, which causes the gun the pitch upwards and the muzzle end to rise.

Muzzle rise can be reduced, though generally only through trading off other qualities. Methods include:

  • adding more ergonomic contact points (such as a buttstock) for more efficient exertion of gripping forces
  • reducing the vertical distance between the barrel and the contact points
  • lowering the recoil by using less powerful rounds
  • lowering the recoil by lowering the rate of fire of fully automatic weapons, or supplanting the full-auto mode with burst mode
  • lowering the backward recoil with devices such as muzzle brakes, which vector away part of the overall recoil
  • lowering the recoil with a suppressor, which slows down the escaping propellant gas and reduces the backward recoil force
  • compensating for the couple using a recoil compensator, a ported barrel or other asymmetric muzzle fixtures, which vector some of the propellant gas upwards to create a reactional downward torque on the muzzle
  • increasing the moment of inertia by attaching additional weight to the muzzle end; it is unusual to do this expressly, although a suppressor or compensator accomplishes it as a collateral effect
  • increasing the rate of fire of burst-fired firearms to give the muzzle rise less time to affect the shot placements

The interchangeable terms muzzle rise, muzzle flip and muzzle climb refer to the tendency of firearms or pneumatic arms front end (muzzle end of the barrel) to rise up after firing.<ref>Recoil management: how you hold makes all the difference, Guns Magazine, Oct 2006 by Dave Anderson</ref>

Muzzle climb more specifically refers to the elevation of muzzle of the firearm, caused by combined recoil from multiple shots being fired in quick succession. It has an adverse effect on accuracy of automatic and rapid-fire semi-automatic firearms, causing a target to be overshot.

The primary reason for muzzle rise is that for nearly all firearms, the centerline of the barrel is above the center of contact between the shooter and the firearms' grips and stock. The recoil forces from the bullet being fired and the propellant gases exiting the muzzle act directly down the centerline of the barrel. If that line of force is above the center of the contact points, this creates a couple, a rotational force. That couple causes the firearm to rotate, and the muzzle end to rise upwards.

Muzzle rise can be reduced by:

  • adding more ergonomic contact points (such as a buttstock) for more grip
  • reducing the vertical distance between the barrel and the contact points
  • lowering recoil by using less powerful rounds
  • lowering recoil by lowering the rate of fire of fully automatic firearms
  • lowering recoil with devices such as muzzle brakes
  • compensating for the couple using a ported barrel or asymmetric muzzle fixture
  • increasing the moment of inertia, however this is unusual
  • supplanting the fully automatic mode of fire with burst mode
  • increasing the rate of fire of burst-fired firearms to allow the muzzle less time to rise

The Jatimatic submachine gun is an example of a firearm where the bore axis is inclined against the bolt and the rest of the firearm in order to redirect the recoil force slightly upwards. The KRISS Vector submachine gun uses a more elaborate mechanical articulated mechanism which allows the block and bolt to recoil not just rearward like most other firearms, but back and then 'vectored' down off-axis along a rail system behind the weapon's magazine well to reduce muzzle rise and felt recoil.

<gallery> Image:Csa04katherine500smith1.jpg|The recoil from the .500 S&W Magnum cartridge inducing significant muzzle rise during firing a Smith & Wesson Model 500 revolver. File:500 Linebaugh shooting.jpg|The recoil from the .500 Linebaugh cartridge inducing significant muzzle rise during firing a Ruger Bisley revolver. File:Beretta m9.jpg|Beretta M9 semi-automatic pistol exhibiting muzzle rise just after firing a 9x19mm Parabellum cartridge. File:Custom XD-40 V-10.jpg|Springfield-Armory custom XD-40 V-10, showing a ported barrel and slide intended to reduce muzzle rise. File:AKM and MP5K.JPEG|An AKM assault rifle asymmetric slant cut muzzle fixture designed to counteract muzzle rise (and muzzle climb) during (automatic) firing. File:Steyr lp10.jpg|The barrel of the Steyr LP 10 PCP air pistol has three holes drilled on top along its length to counteract muzzle rise.

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See also

References

Fair Use References are embedded in the above article as footnotes.

muzzle_rise.txt · Last modified: 2020/03/12 18:36 (external edit)