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Snippet from Wikipedia: Köppen climate classification

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by the German-Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, the climatologist Rudolf Geiger introduced some changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system.

The Köppen climate classification divides climates into five main climate groups, with each group being divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). Each group and subgroup is represented by a letter. All climates are assigned a main group (the first letter). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation subgroup (the second letter). For example, Af indicates a tropical rainforest climate. The system assigns a temperature subgroup for all groups other than those in the A group, indicated by the third letter for climates in B, C, and D, and the second letter for climates in E. For example, Cfb indicates an oceanic climate with warm summers as indicated by the ending b. Climates are classified based on specific criteria unique to each climate type.

As Köppen designed the system based on his experience as a botanist, his main climate groups are based on what types of vegetation grow in a given climate classification region. In addition to identifying climates, the system can be used to analyze ecosystem conditions and identify the main types of vegetation within climates. Due to its link with the plant life of a given region, the system is useful in predicting future changes in plant life within that region.

The Köppen climate classification system has been further modified, within the Trewartha climate classification system in the middle 1960s (revised in 1980). The Trewartha system sought to create a more refined middle latitude climate zone, which was one of the criticisms of the Köppen system (the C climate group was too broad).

File:Koppen World Map (retouched version).png|thumb|right|400px|Updated Köppen–Geiger climate map{{cite journal | author=Peel, M. C. and Finlayson, B. L. and McMahon, T. A. | year=2007 | title= Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification | journal=Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. | volume=11 | pages=1633–1644 |doi=10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007 | url=http://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net/11/1633/2007/hess-11-1633-2007.html | issn = 1027-5606}} ''(direct: [http://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net/11/1633/2007/hess-11-1633-2007.pdf Final Revised Paper])'' {| |- valign=top | | {{legend

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The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Russian German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, German climatologist Rudolf Geiger collaborated with Köppen on changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes referred to as the Köppen&ndash;Geiger climate classification system. The system is based on the concept that native vegetation is the best expression of climate. Thus, climate zone boundaries have been selected with vegetation distribution in mind. It combines average annual and monthly temperatures and precipitation, and the seasonality of precipitation.<ref name=McKnight>

</ref>

Scheme

The Köppen climate classification scheme divides climates into five main groups, each having several types and subtypes. Each particular climate type is represented by a 2 to 4 letter symbol.

GROUP A: Tropical/megathermal climates

Tropical climates are characterized by constant high temperature (at sea level and low elevations) &mdash; all twelve months of the year have average temperatures of

or higher. They are subdivided as follows:

  • Tropical rainforest climate (Af):<ref name=McKnight/>

    All twelve months have average precipitation of at least

    . These climates usually occur within 5&ndash;10° latitude of the equator. In some eastern-coast areas, they may extend to as much as 25° away from the equator. This climate is dominated by the Doldrums Low Pressure System all year round, and therefore has no natural seasons.

    • Some of the places that have this climate are indeed uniformly and monotonously wet throughout the year (e.g., the northwest Pacific coast of South and Central America, from Ecuador to Costa Rica, see for instance, Andagoya, Colombia), but in many cases the period of higher sun and longer days is distinctly wettest (as at Palembang, Indonesia) or the time of lower sun and shorter days may have more rain (as at Sitiawan, Malaysia).
    • A few places with this climate are found at the outer edge of the tropics, almost exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere; one example is Santos, Brazil. <br>Note. The term aseasonal refers to the lack in the tropical zone of large differences in day light hours and mean monthly (or daily) temperature throughout the year. There are annual cyclic changes in the tropics, not as predictable as those in the temperate zone, albeit unrelated to temperature but to water availability whether as rain, mist, soil, or ground water. Plant response (e. g., phenology), animal (feeding, migration, reproduction, et cetera), and human activities (plant sowing, harvesting, hunting, fishing, et cetera) are tuned to this seasonality. Indeed, in tropical South America and Central America, the rainy season (and the high water season) is called ''Invierno'' or Inverno, even though it could occur in the northern hemisphere summer; likewise, the dry season (and low water season) is called ''Verano'' or Verão and can occur in the northern hemisphere winter.
  • Tropical monsoon climate (Am):<ref name=McKnight/>

    This type of climate, most common in South America, results from the monsoon winds which change direction according to the seasons. This climate has a driest month (which nearly always occurs at or soon after the “winter” solstice for that side of the equator) with rainfall less than 60&nbsp;mm, but more than 1/25 the total annual precipitation.

    • Examples:
    • There is also another scenario under which some places fit into this category; this is referred to as the trade-wind littoral climate because easterly winds bring enough precipitation during the “winter” months to prevent the climate from becoming a tropical wet-and-dry climate. Nassau, Bahamas is included among these locations.
  • Tropical wet and dry or savanna climate (Aw):<ref name=McKnight/>

    These climates have a pronounced dry season, with the driest month having precipitation less than 60&nbsp;mm and also less than 1/25 the total annual precipitation.

GROUP B: Dry (arid and semiarid) climates

These climates are characterized by the fact that actual precipitation is less than a threshold value set equal to the potential evapotranspiration.<ref name=McKnight/>

The threshold value (in millimeters) is determined as follows:

  • Multiply the average annual temperature in °C by 20, then add (a) 280 if 70% or more of the total precipitation is in the high-sun half of the year (April through September in the Northern Hemisphere, or October through March in the Southern), or (b) 140 if 30%&ndash;70% of the total precipitation is received during the applicable period, or © 0 if less than 30% of the total precipitation is so received.
  • If the annual precipitation is less than 50% of this threshold, the classification is BW (desert climate); if it is in the range of 50%-100% of the threshold, the classification is BS (steppe climate).
  • A third letter can be included to indicate temperature. Originally, h signified low latitude climate (average annual temperature above 18 °C) while k signified middle latitude climate (average annual temperature below

    ), but the more common practice today (especially in the United States) is to use h to mean that the coldest month has an average temperature that is above

    , with k denoting that at least one month averages below 0 °C.-

    • Desert areas situated along the west coasts of continents at tropical or near-tropical locations are characterized by cooler temperatures than encountered elsewhere at comparable latitudes (due to the nearby presence of cold ocean currents) and frequent fog and low clouds, despite the fact that these places rank among the driest on earth in terms of actual precipitation received. This climate is sometimes labelled BWn.

The BSn category can be found in foggy coastal steppes.

  • Examples:
  • On occasion, a fourth letter is added to indicate if either the winter or summer is “wetter” than the other half of the year. To qualify, the wettest month must have at least

    of average precipitation if all twelve months are above

    , or

    if not; plus at least 70% of the total precipitation must be in the same half of the year as the wettest month &mdash; but the letter used indicates when the dry season occurs, not the “wet” one. This would result in Khartoum, Sudan, being reckoned as BWhw; Niamey, Niger as BShw; Alexandria, Egypt as BWhs; Asbi'ah, Libya as BShs; Ömnögovi Province, Mongolia as BWkw; and Xining, Qinghai, China as BSkw (BWks and BSks do not exist if 0 °C in the coldest month is recognized as the h/k boundary). If the standards for neither w nor s are met, no fourth letter is added.

GROUP C: Temperate/mesothermal climates

These climates have an average temperature above

in their warmest months (April to September in northern hemisphere), and a coldest month average between

.

Some climatologists, particularly in the United States, however, prefer to observe

rather than

in the coldest month as the boundary between this group and the colder Group D (Humid Continental). This is also done to prevent certain mild headland locations on the upper East Coast of the USA and Japan from fitting into the C group.

When the boundary between C (Temperate/mesothermal climates) and D (Cold winter/microthermal climates) is increased to

(not the

suggested by Köppen), this creates a smaller C zone located further southward. In the USA, areas from the NYC metropolitan area (NYC/New Jersey/southern Connecticut) southward, as well as the lower Ohio Valley, lower Midwest and southern Plains, are located in the mild C group, while locations to the north of these regions – Northern Plains, Great Lakes, Midwest, upper Ohio Valley and upper East Coast (Boston northward) – are located in the cooler D group. Using

also pushes parts of northeast and northcentral Asia (northern Japan, northern China, and northern Korea) into the colder D/microthermal group (also known as humid continental).

  • The second letter indicates the precipitation pattern &mdash; w indicates dry winters (driest winter month average precipitation less than one-tenth wettest summer month average precipitation; one variation also requires that the driest winter month have less than 30&nbsp;mm average precipitation), s indicates dry summers (driest summer month less than 40&nbsp;mm average precipitation and less than one-third wettest winter month precipitation) and f means significant precipitation in all seasons (neither above-mentioned set of conditions fulfilled).<ref name=Peel/>
  • The third letter indicates the degree of summer heat &mdash; a indicates warmest month average temperature above

    with at least 4 months averaging above

    , b indicates warmest month averaging below 22 °C, but with at least 4 months averaging above 10 °C, while c means 3 or fewer months with mean temperatures above 10 °C.

  • The order of these two letters is sometimes reversed, especially by climatologists in the United States.
  • Dry-summer subtropical or Mediterranean climates (Csa/Csb):<ref name=McKnight/>

    These climates usually occur on the western sides of continents between the latitudes of 30° and 45°. These climates are in the polar front region in winter, and thus have moderate temperatures and changeable, rainy weather. Summers are hot and dry, due to the domination of the subtropical high pressure systems, except in the immediate coastal areas, where summers are milder due to the nearby presence of cold ocean currents that may bring fog but prevent rain.

  • Under the Köppen-Geiger classification, dry-summer subtropical (Csb) extends to additional areas not typically associated with a typical Mediterranean climate, such as much of the Pacific Northwest, much of southern Chile, parts of west-central Argentina, and areas of northern Spain and Portugal.<ref name=Peel/> Many of these areas would be Oceanic (Cfb), except dry-summer patterns meet Köppen's Cs minimum thresholds. Additional highland areas in the subtropics also meet Cs requirements, although they too are not normally associated with Mediterranean climates.
  • Humid subtropical climates (Cfa, Cwa):<ref name=McKnight/>

    These climates usually occur on the eastern coasts and eastern sides of continents, mainly in the high 20s and 30s latitude. Unlike the Mediterranean climates where summers are dry, Humid Subtropical have a warm and wet flow from the tropics that create warm and moist conditions in the summer months. As such, summer (not winter as is the case in Mediterranean climates) is often the wettest season. The flow out of the subtropical Highs and the summer monsoon creates a southern flow from the tropics that bring warm and moist air to the lower east sides of continents. This flow is often what brings the frequent but short lived summer thundershowers so typical of subtropical east coast climates. East Asia has the world's best developed subtropical monsoons, and the classic dry winter/wet summer is characteristic of the region. In other eastern subtropical areas like the USA and South America, mobile weather fronts/mid latitude storms tend to disrupt the normal dry winter/wet summer monsoon pattern.

<!–****Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (Cfa)<ref>

</ref>

<ref>

</ref>–>

  • Maritime Temperate climates or Oceanic climates (Cfb, Cfc, Cwb, Cwc):<ref name=McKnight/>

    Cfb climates usually occur on the western sides of continents between the latitudes of 45° and 55°; they are typically situated immediately poleward of the Mediterranean climates, although in Australia and extreme southern Africa this climate is found immediately poleward of the humid subtropical climate, and at a somewhat lower latitude. In western Europe, this climate occurs in coastal areas up to 63°N latitude in Norway. These climates are dominated all year round by the polar front, leading to changeable, often overcast weather. Summers are cool due to cool ocean currents, but winters are milder than other climates in similar latitudes but usually very cloudy.

  • Maritime Subarctic climates or Subpolar Oceanic climates (Cfc):<ref name=McKnight/> These climates occur poleward of the Maritime Temperate climates, and are confined either to narrow coastal strips on the western poleward margins of the continents, or, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, to islands off such coasts.

Retrieved on January 4, 2013. </ref>

  • Dry-summer Maritime Subalpine climates (Csc):<ref name=“McKnight” /> This climate exists in high elevation areas adjacent to coastal Csb climate areas, where the strong maritime influence prevent the average winter monthly temperature from dropping below -3°C. This climate is extremely rare and is only found in isolated areas of the Cascades and Andes Mountains, as the dry-summer climate extends further poleward in the Americas than elsewhere.

GROUP D: Continental/microthermal climates

]]

These climates have an average temperature above

in their warmest months, and a coldest month average below &minus;3 °C (or 0 °C in some versions, as noted previously). These usually occur in the interiors of continents and on their upper east coasts, normally north of 40° North latitude. In the Southern Hemisphere, Group D climates are extremely rare due to the smaller land masses in the middle latitudes and the almost complete absence of land at 40°&ndash;60° South latitude, existing only in some highland locations.

  • The second and third letters are used as for Group C climates, while a third letter of d indicates 3 or fewer months with mean temperatures above 10 °C and a coldest month temperature below

    .

Group D climates are subdivided as follows:

Lettering

  • The second letter indicates the precipitation pattern &mdash; w indicates dry winters (driest winter month average precipitation less than one-tenth wettest summer month average precipitation; one variation also requires that the driest winter month have less than 30&nbsp;mm average precipitation), s indicates dry summers (driest summer month less than 30&nbsp;mm average precipitation and less than one-third wettest winter month precipitation) and f means significant precipitation in all seasons (neither above mentioned set of conditions fulfilled).
  • The third letter indicates the degree of summer heat &mdash; a indicates warmest month average temperature above

    with at least 4 months averaging above

    , b indicates warmest month averaging below 22 °C, but with at least 4 months averaging above 10 °C, while c means 3 or fewer months with mean temperatures above 10 °C.

Scheme

  • Hot Summer Continental climates (Dfa, Dwa, Dsa):<ref name=McKnight/>

    Dfa climates usually occur in the high 30s and low 40s latitudes, with a qualifying average temperature in the warmest month of >22°C/71.6°F. In Europe these climates tend to be much drier than in North America. In eastern Asia Dwa climates extend further south due to the influence of the Siberian high pressure system, which also causes winters there to be dry, and summers can be very wet because of monsoon circulation. Dsa exists at higher elevations adjacent to areas with hot summer Mediterranean (Csa) climates.

  • Warm Summer Continental or Hemiboreal climates (Dfb, Dwb, Dsb):<ref name=McKnight/> Dfb and Dwb climates are immediately north of Hot Summer Continental climates, generally in the high 40s and low 50s in latitude in North America and Asia, and also in central and eastern Europe and Russia, between the Maritime Temperate and Continental Subarctic climates, where it extends up to high 50s and even low 60 degrees latitude.
  • Continental Subarctic or Boreal (taiga) climates (Dfc, Dwc, Dsc):<ref name=McKnight/>

    Dfc and Dwc climates occur poleward of the other Group D climates, mostly in the 50s and low 60s North latitude, although it might occur as far north as 70° latitude.

  • Continental Subarctic climates with extremely severe winters (Dfd, Dwd, Dsd):<ref name=McKnight/> Places with this climate have the temperature in their coldest month lower than

    These climates occur only in eastern Siberia. The names of some of the places that have this climate &mdash; most notably Verkhoyansk (Dfd) and Oymyakon (Dwd)&mdash; have become veritable synonyms for extreme, severe winter cold.

GROUP E: Polar and Alpine climates

These climates are characterized by average temperatures below

in all twelve months of the year:

  • Tundra climate (ET):<ref name=McKnight/>

    Warmest month has an average temperature between

    . These climates occur on the northern edges of the North American and Eurasian landmasses, and on nearby islands. It also occurs on some islands near the Antarctic Convergence.

  • Ice Cap climate (EF):<ref name=McKnight/>

    All twelve months have average temperatures below

    . This climate is dominant in Antarctica (e.g., Scott Base) and in inner Greenland (e.g., Eismitte or North Ice).

  • Occasionally, a third, lower-case letter is added to ET climates if either the summer or winter is clearly drier than the other half of the year; thus Herschel Island ('Qikiqtaruk', in Inuvialuit) off the coast of Canada's Yukon Territory, becomes ETw, with Pic du Midi de Bigorre in the French Pyrenees acquiring an ETs designation. If the precipitation is more or less evenly spread throughout the year, ETf may be used, such as for Hebron, Labrador. When the option to include this letter is exercised, the same standards that are used for Groups C and D apply, with the additional requirement that the wettest month must have an average of at least 30&nbsp;mm precipitation (Group E climates can be as dry or even drier than Group B climates based on actual precipitation received, but their rate of evaporation is much lower). Seasonal precipitation letters are almost never attached to EF climates, mainly due to the difficulty in distinguishing between falling and blowing snow, as snow is the sole source of moisture in these climates.

Criticisms of the Köppen scheme

Some climatologists have argued that Köppen's system could be improved upon. One of the most frequently-raised objections concerns the temperate Group C category, regarded by many as overly broad. Using the 0°C isotherm, New Orleans and London would both fall into this climate scheme, despite dramatic differences between these climates. In Applied Climatology (first edition published in 1966), John F. Griffiths proposed a new subtropical zone, encompassing those areas with a coldest month of between

, effectively subdividing Group C into two nearly equal parts (his scheme assigns the letter B to the new zone, and identifies dry climates with an additional letter immediately following the temperature-based letter).

Another point of contention involves the dry B climates; the argument here is that their separation by Köppen into only two thermal subsets is inadequate. Those who hold this view (including Griffiths) have suggested that the dry climates be placed on the same temperature continuum as other climates, with the thermal letter being followed by an additional capital letter &mdash; S for steppe or W (or D) for desert &mdash; as applicable (Griffiths also advances an alternate formula for use as an aridity threshold: R = 160 + 9T, with R equalling the threshold, in millimeters of mean annual precipitation, and T denoting the mean annual temperature in degrees Celsius).

A third idea is to create a maritime polar or EM zone within Group E to separate relatively mild marine locations (such as the Falkland Islands, and the outer Aleutian Islands) from the colder, continental tundra climates. Specific proposals vary; some advocate setting a coldest-month parameter, such as

, while others support assigning the new designation to areas with an average annual temperature of above 0 °C.

The accuracy of the 10 °C warmest-month line as the start of the polar climates has also been questioned; Otto Nordenskiöld, for example, devised an alternate formula: W = 9 &minus; 0.1 C, with W representing the average temperature of the warmest month and C that of the coldest month, both in degrees Celsius (for instance, if the coldest month averaged &minus;20 °C, a warmest-month average of 11 °C or higher would be necessary to prevent the climate from being polar). This boundary does appear to more closely follow the tree line, or the latitude poleward of which trees cannot grow, than the 10 °C warmest-month isotherm; the former tends to run poleward of the latter near the western margins of the continents, but at a lower latitude in the landmass interiors, the two lines crossing at or near the east coasts of both Asia and North America.

Trewartha climate classification scheme

The Trewartha climate classification scheme (1966 and 1980 update) is a modified version of the Köppen system, and was an answer to some of the deficiencies of the 1899 Köppen system. The newer Trewartha theme attempts to redefine the middle latitudes in such a way as to be closer to vegetational zoning and genetic climate systems. This change was seen as most effective in Asia and North America, where many areas fell into a single zone (the C climate group). Under the standard Köppen system in the USA for example, western Washington and Oregon are classed into the same climate as southern California, even though the two regions have strikingly different weather and vegetation. The Köppen system also classes Midwest into the same climate as the Gulf Coast.

Trewartha's modifications sought to reclass the middle latitudes into zones; 1) Subtropical - 8 or more months have a mean temperature of 50 F/10 C or higher. 2) Temperate - 4 to 7 months have a mean temperature of 10 C or higher. 3) Boreal (or subarctic) - 1 to 3 months have a mean temperature of 10 C or higher. This change from the older Köppen system was thought to reflect a more true or “real world” reflection of the global climate.<ref>

</ref>

  • Group A

: This the tropical climate realm, defined the same as in Köppen's scheme (i.e., all 12 months average 18 °C or above). Climates with no more than two dry months (defined as having less than 60&nbsp;mm average precipitation, same as per Köppen) are classified Ar (instead of Köppen's Af), while others are classified Aw if the dry season is at the time of low sun/short days or As if the dry season is at the time of high sun/long days. There was no specific monsoon climate identifier in the original scheme, but Am was added later, with the same parameters as Köppen's (except that at least three months, rather than one, must have less than 60&nbsp;mm average precipitation).

  • Group B

: BW and BS mean the same as in the Köppen scheme, with the Köppen BWn climate sometimes being designated BM (the M standing for “marine”). However, a different formula is used to quantify the aridity threshold: 10 X (T &minus; 10) + 3P, with T equalling the mean annual temperature in degrees Celsius and P denoting the percentage of total precipitation received in the six high-sun months (April through September in the Northern Hemisphere and October through March in the Southern). If the precipitation for a given location is less than the above formula, its climate is said to be that of a desert (BW); if it is equal to or greater than the above formula but less than twice that amount, the climate is classified as steppe (BS); and if the precipitation is more than double the value of the formula the climate is not in Group B. Unlike in Köppen's scheme, no thermal subsets exist within this group in Trewartha's, unless the Universal Thermal Scale (see below) is used.

  • Group C

: In the Trewartha scheme this category encompasses Subtropical climates (C) only (8 or more months above 10 °C). Cs and Cw have the same meanings as they do in Köppen's scheme, but the subtropical climate with no distinct dry season is designated Cr instead of Köppen's Cf (and for Cs the average annual precipitation must be less than

in addition to the driest summer month having less than 30&nbsp;mm precipitation and being less than one-third as wet as the wettest winter month).

  • Group D

: This group represents Temperate climates (D) with (4 to 7 months above 10 °C). Temperate Oceanic maritime climates (most of Köppen's Cfb and Cwb climates, though some of these would fit into Trewartha's Cr and Cw respectively) are denoted DO in the Trewartha classification (although some places (like Halifax) near the east coasts of both North America and Asia actually qualify as DO climates in Trewartha's scheme when they fit into Cfa/Cwa rather than Cfb/Cwb in Köppen's), while Temperate Continental climates are represented as DCa (Köppen Dfa, Dwa, Dsa) and DCb (Köppen Dfb, Dwb, Dsb). For the continental climates, sometimes the third letter (a or b) is omitted and DC is simply used instead, and occasionally a precipitational seasonality letter is added to both the maritime and continental climates (r, w, or s, as applicable). The dividing point between the maritime and continental climates is &minus;3 °C in the coldest month, however, some climatologists &mdash; particularly in the United States &mdash; now observe 0 °C in the coldest month as the equatorward limit of the continental climates in that scheme as well).

  • Group E

: This represents Ice realms, defined the same as in Köppen's scheme (1 to 3 months with average temperatures of 10 °C or above; Köppen Cfc, Dfc, Dwc, Dsc, Dfd, Dwd). In the original scheme, this group was not further divided; later, the designations EO and EC were created, with EO (maritime subarctic) signifying that the coldest month averages above &minus;10 °C, while EC (continental subarctic or “boreal”) means that at least one month has an average temperature of &minus;10 °C or below. As in Group D, a third letter can be added to indicate seasonality of precipitation. There is no separate counterpart to the Köppen Dfd/Dwd climate in Trewartha's scheme.

  • Group F

: This is the polar climate group, split into FT (Köppen ET) and FI (Köppen EF).

  • Group H

: Highland climates, in which altitude plays a role in determining climate classification.<ref name=McKnight />

Specifically, this would apply if correcting the average temperature of each month to a sea-level value using the formula of adding 5.6 °C for each 1,000 meters of elevation would result in the climate fitting into a different thermal group than that into which the actual monthly temperatures place it. Sometimes G is used instead of H if the above is true and the altitude is 500 meters or higher but lower than 2,500 meters; but the G or H is placed in front of the applicable thermal letter rather than replacing it &mdash; and the second letter used reflects the corrected monthly temperatures, not the actual monthly temperatures.

  • Universal Thermal Scale

: An option exists to include information on both the warmest and coldest months for every climate by adding a third and fourth letter, respectively. The letters used conform to the following scale:<br>i &mdash; severely hot: Mean monthly temperature ≥

or higher<br>h &mdash; very hot:

<br>a &mdash; hot:

<br>b &mdash; warm:

<br>l &mdash; mild:

<br>k &mdash; cool:

<br>o &mdash; cold:

<br>c &mdash; very cold:

<br>d &mdash; severely cold:

<br>e &mdash; excessively cold:

or below.<br>Examples of the resulting designations include Afaa for Surabaya, Indonesia, BWhl for Aswan, Egypt, Crhk for Dallas, Texas, U.S. DObk for London, EClc for Arkhangelsk, Russia, and FTkd for Barrow, Alaska, U.S..

World Map of the Köppen&ndash;Geiger climate classification for the period 1951&ndash;2000

Based on recent data sets from the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of the University of East Anglia and the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) at the German Weather Service, a new digital Köppen&ndash;Geiger world map on climate classification for the second half of the 20th century has been compiled.<ref name=Kottek2006>

</ref>

Other maps

All maps use the ≥0&nbsp;°C definition for temperate climates and the 18&nbsp;°C annual mean temperature threshold to distinguish between hot and cold dry climates.<ref name=Peel/> <gallery> Image:Africa Koppen Map.png|Köppen map of Africa Image:Americas Koppen Map.png|Köppen map of the Americas Image:Asia Koppen Map.png|Köppen map of Asia Image:Australia-Oceania Koppen Map.png|Köppen map of Australia/Oceania Image:BrazilKoppenClimateMap.png|Köppen map of Brazil Image:Europe Koppen Map.png|Köppen map of Europe Image:North-America Koppen Map.png|Köppen map of North America Image:NorthIndiaClimateKoppen.png|Köppen map of South Asia Image:Russia Koppen Map.png|Köppen map of Russia Image:South-America Koppen Map.png|Köppen map of South America Image:West-Asia Koppen Map.png|Köppen map of the Middle East </gallery>

See also

  • Holdridge life zones climate classification by three dimensions: precipitation, humidity, and potential evapotranspiration ratio

References

Climate records

koeppen_climate_classification.txt · Last modified: 2020/03/12 18:35 (external edit)