User Tools

Site Tools


free_software_foundation
Snippet from Wikipedia: Free Software Foundation

The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization founded by Richard Stallman on 4 October 1985 to support the free software movement, which promotes the universal freedom to study, distribute, create, and modify computer software, with the organization's preference for software being distributed under copyleft ("share alike") terms, such as with its own GNU General Public License. The FSF was incorporated in Boston, Massachusetts, US, where it is also based.

From its founding until the mid-1990s, FSF's funds were mostly used to employ software developers to write free software for the GNU Project. Since the mid-1990s, the FSF's employees and volunteers have mostly worked on legal and structural issues for the free software movement and the free software community.

Consistent with its goals, the FSF aims to use only free software on its own computers.

</ref>

}}

The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization founded by Richard Stallman on 4 October 1985 to support the free software movement, which promotes the universal freedom to create, distribute and modify computer software,<ref>

</ref> with the organization's preference for software being distributed under copyleft (“share alike”) terms,<ref>

</ref> such as with its own GNU General Public License.<ref>

</ref> The FSF was incorporated in Massachusetts, USA, where it is also based.<ref name=“FSF MACorpRegistry”>

</ref> From its founding until the mid-1990s, FSF's funds were mostly used to employ software developers to write free software for the GNU Project. Since the mid-1990s, the FSF's employees and volunteers have mostly worked on legal and structural issues for the free software movement and the free software community.

Consistent with its goals, only free software is used on FSF's computers.<ref>

</ref>

History

The Free Software Foundation was founded in 1985 as a non-profit corporation supporting free software development. It continued existing GNU projects such as the sale of manuals and tapes, and employed developers of the free software system.<ref>

</ref> Since then, it has continued these activities, as well as advocating for the free software movement. The FSF is also the steward of several free software licenses, meaning they publish them and have the ability to make revisions as needed.<ref>

</ref>

In March 2003, SCO filed suit against IBM alleging that IBM's contributions to various free software, including FSF's GNU, violated SCO's rights. While FSF was never a party to the lawsuit, FSF was subpoenaed on November 5, 2003.<ref>

</ref> During 2003 and 2004, FSF put substantial advocacy effort into responding to the lawsuit and quelling its negative impact on the adoption and promotion of free software.<ref>

</ref><ref name=“autogenerated2004”/>

In 2007, the FSF published the third version of the GNU General Public License after significant outside input.<ref>

</ref><ref>

</ref>

The FSF holds the copyrights on many pieces of the GNU system, such as GNU Compiler Collection. As holder of these copyrights, it has the authority to enforce the copyleft requirements of the GNU General Public License (GPL) when copyright infringement occurs on that software. While other copyright holders of other software systems adopted the GPL as their license, FSF was the only

organization to regularly assert its copyright interests on software so licensed

until Harald Welte launched gpl-violations.org in 2004.

From 1991 until 2001, GPL enforcement was done informally, usually by Stallman himself, often with assistance from FSF's lawyer, Eben Moglen.

Typically, GPL violations during this time were cleared up by short email exchanges between Stallman and the violator.

In late 2001, Bradley M. Kuhn (then Executive Director), with the assistance of Moglen, David Turner, and Peter T. Brown, formalized these efforts into FSF's GPL Compliance Labs. From 2002-2004, high profile GPL enforcement cases, such as those against Linksys and OpenTV, became frequent.<ref>

Hosted on the Wayback machine.</ref><ref>

</ref><ref>

</ref>

GPL enforcement and educational campaigns on GPL compliance was a major focus of the FSF's efforts during this period.<ref>

</ref><ref>

</ref>

In December 2008 FSF filed a lawsuit against Cisco for using GPL-licensed components shipped with Linksys products. Cisco was notified of the licensing issue in 2003 but Cisco repeatedly disregarded its obligations under the GPL.<ref>

</ref> In May 2009, FSF dropped the lawsuit when Cisco agreed to make a monetary donation to the FSF and appoint a Free Software Director to conduct continuous reviews of the company's license compliance practices.<ref>

</ref>

From 2003 to 2005, FSF held legal seminars to explain the GPL and the law around it.<ref>

</ref> Usually taught by Bradley M. Kuhn and Daniel Ravicher, these seminars offered CLE credit and were the first effort to give formal legal education on the GPL.<ref name=“autogenerated2004”>

</ref><ref>FSF Bulletin 3 notes that a seminar led by Kuhn and Ravicher occurred on 2003-08-08

</ref><ref>

</ref>

Current and ongoing activities

; The GNU project: The original purpose of the FSF was to promote the ideals of free software. The organization developed the GNU operating system as an example of this. ; GNU licenses: The GNU General Public License (GPL) is a widely used license for free software projects. The current version (version 3) was released in June 2007. The FSF has also published the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL), the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL), and the GNU Affero General Public License (AGPL). ; GNU Press: The FSF's publishing department, responsible for “publishing affordable books on computer science using freely distributable licenses.”<ref>

</ref><ref>List of books published in GNU Press home site</ref> ; The Free Software Directory : This is a listing of software packages that have been verified as free software. Each package entry contains 47 pieces of information such as the project's homepage, developers, programming language, etc. The goals are to provide a search engine for free software, and to provide a cross-reference for users to check if a package has been verified as being free software. FSF has received a small amount of funding from UNESCO for this project. It is hoped

that the directory can be translated into many languages in the future. ; Maintaining the Free Software Definition : FSF maintains many of the documents that define the free software movement. ; Project hosting: FSF hosts software development projects on their Savannah website. ; Political campaigns : FSF sponsors a number of campaigns against what it perceives as dangers to software freedom, including software patents, digital rights management (which the FSF has re-termed “digital restrictions management”, as part of their effort to highlight their view that such technologies are “designed to take away and limit your rights,”<ref>

</ref>) and user interface copyright. Defective by Design is an FSF-initiated campaign against DRM. They also have a campaign to promote Ogg+Vorbis, a free alternative to proprietary formats like MP3 and AAC. They also sponsor some free software projects that are deemed to be “high-priority”. ; Annual awards: “Award for the Advancement of Free Software” and “Free Software Award for Projects of Social Benefit

High priority projects

is a distribution officially supported by the FSF]]

The FSF maintains a list of "high priority projects" to which the Foundation claims that “there is a vital need to draw the free software community's attention”.<ref name=“highpriority”>

</ref> The FSF considers these projects “important because computer users are continually being seduced into using non-free software, because there is no adequate free replacement.”<ref name=“highpriority” />

Previous projects highlighted as needing work included the Free Java implementations, GNU Classpath, and GNU Compiler for Java, which ensure compatibility for the Java part of OpenOffice.org, and the GNOME desktop environment (see Java: Licensing).

The effort has been criticized for either not instigating active development or for being slow at the work being done, even after certain projects were added to the list.<ref>FSF's High-Priority Driver Project Doesn't Move Phoronix, April 20, 2011 (Article by Michael Larabel)</ref>

Hardware endorsements

The FSF maintains a “Respects Your Freedom hardware certification” program. To be granted certification, a product must use 100% Free Software, allow user installation of modified software, be free of back doors and conform with several other requirements.<ref>

</ref>

Currently, a total of four products have been granted the certification:<ref>

</ref>

  • The Gluglug X60 laptop
  • Aleph Objects, Inc. LulzBot 3D printers
  • The ThinkPenquin TPE-N150USB Wireless N USB Adapter
  • The ThinkPenquin TPE-N150USBL

Recognition

  • 1999: Linus Torvalds for Open Source Computing<ref>

    </ref>

  • 2005: Prix Ars Electronica Award of Distinction in the category of “Digital Communities”<!– <ref>

    </ref>–><ref>

    </ref>

Structure

The FSF's board of directors includes:

Previous board members include:

  • Lawrence Lessig, Professor of Law at Stanford University (served from March 28, 2004 until 2008)
  • Robert J. Chassell, Founding Treasurer,<ref name=“founders” /> as well as a Founding Director (served from inception until June 3, 1997)
  • Len Tower Jr., Founding member,<ref name=“founders” /> (served until September 2, 1997)
  • Miguel de Icaza (served from August 1999<ref>The FSF annual filings with the Commonwealth of Massachusetts for 1998 and

1999 show that De Icaza was not on the board on 1998-11-01 and was as of 1999-11-01, so he clearly joined sometime between those dates. Those documents further indicate that the 1999 Annual meeting occurred in August; usually, new directors are elected at annual meetings.</ref> until February 25, 2002<ref>The FSF annual filings with the Commonwealth of Massachusetts for 2002 (

) show that De Icaza has left the board. Changes to board composition are usually made at the annual meeting; which occurred on February 25, 2002.</ref>)

  • Eben Moglen (served from July 28, 2000<ref>The FSF annual filings with the Commonwealth of Massachusetts for 1999 and

2000 show that Moglen was not on the board on 1999-11-01 and was as of 2000-11-01, so he clearly joined sometime between those dates. Those documents further indicate that the 2000 Annual meeting occurred on July 28, 2000; usually, new directors are elected at annual meetings.</ref> until 2007<ref>Moglen announced his intention to resign in his blog (

). The resignation likely occurred at the 2007 annual meeting of the directors; the exact date of that meeting is unknown.</ref>)<!–I know he announced on April 23, but when did his term actually end? Bkuhn responds: There are no third-party sources for that yet, but I've added a link to what we know. –>

The FSF Board of Directors is elected by the Voting Membership, whose powers include at least this are outlined in the by-laws:<ref name=“maaa”/>

There are currently no known documents available that indicate the composition of the FSF's Voting Membership.

John Sullivan is the current FSF Executive Director. Previous members that occupied the position were Peter Brown (2005–2010) and Bradley M. Kuhn (2001–2005).

At any given time, there are usually around a dozen employees.<ref>

</ref> Most, but not all, work at the FSF headquarters in Boston, Massachusetts.<ref>

</ref>

Eben Moglen and Dan Ravicher previously served individually as pro bono legal counsel to the FSF. Since the forming of the Software Freedom Law Center, legal services to the FSF are provided by that organization.

On November 25, 2002, the FSF launched the FSF Associate Membership program for individuals.<ref>The site member.fsf.org first appears in the Internet Archive in December 2002, and that site lists the date of the launch as 25 November 2002.

</ref> Bradley M. Kuhn (FSF Executive Director, 2001–2005) launched the program and also signed up as the first Associate Member<ref>Kuhn has an FSF-generated member link that identifies him as the first member on his web page.

</ref>

Associate members hold a purely honorary and funding support role to the FSF.<ref name=“maaa”>

</ref>

Criticism

Linus Torvalds has criticized FSF for using GPLv3 as a weapon in their fight against DRM. Torvalds argues that the issue of DRM and that of a software license should be treated as two separate issues.<ref>

</ref>

On June 16, 2010, Joe Brockmeier, a journalist at Linux Magazine, criticized the Defective by Design campaign by the FSF as “negative” and “juvenile” and not being adequate for providing users with “credible alternatives” to proprietary software.<ref>

</ref> FSF responded to this criticism by saying “that there is a fundamental difference between speaking out against policies or actions and smear campaigns”, and “that if one is taking an ethical position, it is justified, and often necessary, to not only speak about the benefits of freedom but against acts of dispossession and disenfranchisement.”<ref>In defense of negativity — Free Software Foundation — working together for free software. Fsf.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-17.</ref>

See also

References

free_software_foundation.txt · Last modified: 2020/03/12 18:34 (external edit)