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Democracy

Democracy is nothing more than mob rule, where 51% of the people may take away the rights of the other 49%.” - Thomas Jefferson

Democracy is two wolves and a lamb voting on what to have for lunch. Liberty is a well-armed lamb contesting the vote.”


“A democracy is always temporary in nature; it simply cannot exist as a permanent form of government. A democracy will continue to exist up until the time that voters discover that they can vote themselves generous gifts from the public treasury. From that moment on, the majority always votes for the candidates who promise the most benefits from the public treasury, with the result that every democracy will finally collapse due to loose fiscal policy…” – Alexander Fraser Tytler, Scottish lawyer and writer, 1770 - see Nanny State and Welfare


America is a Great Nation precisely because it is a Constitutional Republic with a Bill of Rights that enumerates some of our God-given, intrinsic, inherent, inalienable, moral rights, especially the right to bare arms for self defense (Second Amendment).

The Second Amendment helps to empower ordinary Citizen Patriots and the Milita to protect and defend the Constitution against all enemies foreign and domestic. The Second Amendment helps to enforce the remaining nine amendments against usurpation by the tyranny of tyrants (especially the oligarchy of economic tyranny of the banksters such as the Federal Reserve, the IRS, the Rothschilds, the World Bank and IMF, the globalists, the United Nations and the Federalists, from religious tyranny of Islamist-Fundamentalist Muslims with their sharira law and jihad, and from the tyranny from the Peoples Republic of China, Russia and other statists (nanny state), socialists, fascists, and communists.

This Great Nation is a Constitutional Republic, not merely a democracy with potential for mob rule, thanks to our wise and compassionate Founding Fathers, especially Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Paine, and Patrick Henry.

One should immediately and seriously Invest in Tangibles, in order to help protect yourself, your family, your community, and this Great Nation in our American democracy where both the voters and politicians either don't respect or don't understand that America is not merely a democracy, but is actually a Constitutional Republic.

see Constitution, republic

Democracy is the government of the people, by the people and for the people (as Abraham Lincoln defined it). It was invented by the ancient Greeks and has spread widely in western nations since the English Civil War in the mid 17th century.

Democracy means the people rule and can do anything they want by majority rule.<ref>http://pajamasmedia.com/blog/america-a-republic-not-a-democracy/</ref> In the U.S. “super majorities” (over 50%) are required for many decisions, such as ratifying a treaty or passing a constitutional amendment. Republicanism means there is a system of rule of law, or inalienable rights, which no majority can vote out.

Term

The origin of the term is Greek, from the words demos (people) and kratos (strength).

Sovereignty

The defining characteristic of a democracy is that the citizenry of a nation are sovereign. Constitutional monarchies become democratic (as in Britain, Japan and Scandinavia) by narrowing the power of the monarch to ceremonial roles and letting an elected government rule.

The United States Constitution guarantees a republican form of government. With elected executives (governor/president) and legislatures. In parliamentary democracies, the executive and legislative branches are not separate. In them parties form winning coalitions and the coalition controls both the government and the parliament.

Greece

In ancient Athens, male citizens (not women, children or slaves) were allowed to vote in the Assembly which made the laws of the city-state. Citizens did not elect representatives–they acted themselves. This form survives in “town meetings” in small New England villages.

Debate over the merits of democracy

While a direct democracy in the manner of the Athenians is probably infeasible in a modern nation-state comprised of millions of citizens, there continues to be debate among conservatives as to whether representative democracy is a desirable system. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who could be considered the father of both modern democracy and totalitarianism, believed that in a democracy the government should be guided only by what he called the General Will. Other thinkers of the French Enlightenment described a republic as a system in which the law applies equally to the government and the people, a concept abbreviated in the 21st century by the phrase rule of law. Most contemporary thinkers would identify universal suffrage and the right of any citizen to argue for a change in existing law as desirable features of democracy; but there is some question as to whether the rule of law can be indefinitely sustained in a system with these features. Thomas Jefferson believed that it could so long as the people were educated, and thus devoted his post-presidency to founding the University of Virginia. Nonetheless, property continued to be a proxy for education throughout the antebellum period and Jefferson's home state of Virginia only abolished property qualifications for voting in 1851, years after any other state. Another (probably apocryphal) quote attributed to Alexander Fraser Tytler says that a republic can only last until the people find out that they can vote themselves public funds. This would be considered a welfare state, which most conservatives feel is an abuse of the U. S. Constitution's Necessary and Proper Clause.

Democracy may have its problems; an uneducated populace, for example, is the bane of any democracy, since unless people know what they need, they can not properly elect people to serve these needs. Other problems emerge from a capricious electorate, which caused Winston Churchill to remark that, “Democracy is the worst form of government… except for all the other forms that have been tried,” a quote which eloquently notes that, despite its problems, democracy almost universally provides for peace and prosperity.

Majoritarian systems are, however, problematic in that, in theory, they permit a majority to debase the welfare of a minority. Socialists argue that a high degree of socio-economic equality is required for real political equality, but also contend that solidarity and fraternity may be sufficient to overcome the distorting effects of unequal wealth and enact pro-labor policies.

Democracy may also create the illusion that truth belongs to the people, which is not the case because truth only belongs to God. It should be also noted that democracy allows un-Christian leaders to gain power in a normally Christian nation.

Evolution of Anglo-American democracy

In the United States, the current system of representative democracy evolved as a result of six major reforms:

  1. The American Revolution which severed ties with the King of Great Britain and endowed the people with the sovereign prerogatives that formerly belonged to the monarchy.
  2. The U. S. Constitution's creation of the House of Representatives, a Federal government entity elected directly by the citizens, and retention of federalism, the right of individual states to govern themselves and make their own laws.
  3. The abolition of property qualifications for white male voters. This process, which was accomplished at the state level, took between 1820 and 1851 and is also known as Jacksonian Democracy.
  4. The Fifteenth Amendment, which prevented the use of race as a restriction on voting.
  5. The Seventeenth Amendment, which caused Senators to be elected directly by the citizens instead of the state legislatures.
  6. The Nineteenth Amendment, which extended the franchise to women.

Historically, the Fifteenth Amendment inspired the most opposition. Indeed, every state of the former Confederacy circumvented the Fifteenth Amendment between the end of Reconstruction and the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, considered the ultimate guarantee of that Amendment.

Britain

In Britain, there were six major reforms in the direction of democracy:

  1. The 1832 Reform Act, which gave representation to the new industrial cities for the first time.
  2. The 1911 Parliament Act, which ended the ability of the House of Lords to rein in spending by the Commons.
  3. The 1918 Reform Act, which made suffrage universal among males and extended it to women 30 years of age or older.
  4. The 1928 Reform Act, which equalized voting ages for male and female at 21.

It is noteworthy that it took the British 84 years to complete the process of abolishing property qualifications for voting (the first three Acts lowered the threshold incrementally) and that they only began to do so after Jacksonian Democracy emerged in the United States.

While none of these Acts has sustained a serious movement for repeal, historically the one which inspired the strongest opposition was the 1911 Parliament Act. Not surprisingly, this opposition came from the House of Lords, the last body of unelected people to retain any legislative power in the British system. Ultimately, the bill passed only after King George V promised to create an unlimited number of new peers in order to pass it.

The United States, Britain, Canada and many other countries mostly utilize a first past the post system for elections. The highest vote-getter wins. This limits the number of political parties and helps to stabilize the system, in contrast to democracies which use proportional representation where a party winning 5% of the vote is guaranteed a seat. Italy, Germany, France, and Israel have at times had over 10 parties represented in their legislatures.

Further Reading

References

DEMOCRACY - That form of government in which the sovereign power resides in and is exercised by the whole body of free citizens directly or indirectly through a system of representation, as distinguished from monarchy, aristocracy, or oligarchy.“ <Ref> Black's Law Dictionary, Sixth Edition, P. 432</Ref>

<References/>

See also

Forms of Government Republicanism


Democracy

James Wesley Rawles' site:survivalblog.com "Democracy"

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Snippet from Wikipedia: Democracy

Democracy (Greek: δημοκρατία, dēmokratiā, from dēmos 'people' and kratos 'rule') is a form of government in which the people have the authority to choose their governing legislation. Who people are and how authority is shared among them are core issues for democratic theory, development and constitution. Some cornerstones of these issues are freedom of assembly and speech, inclusiveness and equality, membership, consent, voting, right to life and minority rights.

Generally, there are two types of democracy: direct and representative. In a direct democracy, the people directly deliberate and decide on legislature. In a representative democracy, the people elect representatives to deliberate and decide on legislature, such as in parliamentary or presidential democracy. Liquid democracy combines elements of these two basic types. However, the noun "democracy" has, over time, been modified by more than 3,500 adjectives which suggests that it may have types that can elude and elide this duality.

The most common day-to-day decision making approach of democracies has been the majority rule, though other decision making approaches like supermajority and consensus have been equally integral to democracies. They serve the crucial purpose of inclusiveness and broader legitimacy on sensitive issues, counterbalancing majoritarianism, and therefore mostly take precedence on a constitutional level.

In the common variant of liberal democracy, the powers of the majority are exercised within the framework of a representative democracy, but the constitution limits the majority and protects the minority, usually through the enjoyment by all of certain individual rights, e.g. freedom of speech, or freedom of association. Besides these general types of democracy, there have been a wealth of further types (see below). Republics, though often associated with democracy because of the shared principle of rule by consent of the governed, are not necessarily democracies, as republicanism does not specify how the people are to rule.

Democracy is a system of processing conflicts in which outcomes depend on what participants do, but no single force controls what occurs and its outcomes. The uncertainty of outcomes is inherent in democracy. Democracy makes all forces struggle repeatedly to realize their interests and devolves power from groups of people to sets of rules. Western democracy, as distinct from that which existed in pre-modern societies, is generally considered to have originated in city-states such as Classical Athens and the Roman Republic, where various schemes and degrees of enfranchisement of the free male population were observed before the form disappeared in the West at the beginning of late antiquity. The English word dates back to the 16th century, from the older Middle French and Middle Latin equivalents.

According to American political scientist Larry Diamond, democracy consists of four key elements: a political system for choosing and replacing the government through free and fair elections; the active participation of the people, as citizens, in politics and civic life; protection of the human rights of all citizens; a rule of law, in which the laws and procedures apply equally to all citizens. Todd Landman, nevertheless, draws our attention to the fact that democracy and human rights are two different concepts and that "there must be greater specificity in the conceptualisation and operationalisation of democracy and human rights".

The term appeared in the 5th century BC to denote the political systems then existing in Greek city-states, notably Athens, to mean "rule of the people", in contrast to aristocracy (ἀριστοκρατία, aristokratía), meaning "rule of an elite". While theoretically, these definitions are in opposition, in practice the distinction has been blurred historically. The political system of Classical Athens, for example, granted democratic citizenship to free men and excluded slaves and women from political participation. In virtually all democratic governments throughout ancient and modern history, democratic citizenship consisted of an elite class, until full enfranchisement was won for all adult citizens in most modern democracies through the suffrage movements of the 19th and 20th centuries.

Democracy contrasts with forms of government where power is either held by an individual, as in an absolute monarchy, or where power is held by a small number of individuals, as in an oligarchy. Nevertheless, these oppositions, inherited from Greek philosophy, are now ambiguous because contemporary governments have mixed democratic, oligarchic and monarchic elements. Karl Popper defined democracy in contrast to dictatorship or tyranny, thus focusing on opportunities for the people to control their leaders and to oust them without the need for a revolution.

democracy.txt · Last modified: 2020/03/12 18:33 (external edit)