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autarky
Snippet from Wikipedia: Autarky

Autarky is the characteristic of self-sufficiency; the term usually applies to political states, societies or to their economic systems. Autarky exists whenever an entity survives or continues its activities without external assistance or international trade. If a self-sufficient economy also refuses to conduct any trade with the outside world then economists may term it a "closed economy". (Economic theorists also use the term "closed economy" technically as an abstraction to allow consideration of a single economy without taking foreign trade into account – i.e. as the antonym of "open economy".) Autarky in the political sense is not necessarily an exclusively economic phenomenon; for example, a military autarky would be a state that could defend itself without help from another country, or could manufacture all of its weapons without any imports from the outside world.

Autarky as an ideal or method has been embraced by a wide range of political ideologies and movements, especially left-wing creeds like African socialism, mutualism, war communism, council communism, Swadeshi, syndicalism (especially anarcho-syndicalism) and leftist populism, generally in an effort to build alternative economic structures or to control resources against structures a particular movement views as hostile. Conservative, centrist and nationalist movements (such as in the American system, Juche, mercantilism, the Meiji Restoration, social corporatism, and traditionalist conservatism) have also adopted autarky in temporary, limited ways - usually in an attempt to preserve part of an existing social order or to develop a particular industry. Some fascist and far-right movements occasionally espoused autarky as a goal in propaganda but in practice crushed existing movements towards self-sufficiency and established extensive capital connections to serve as a basis for war and genocide while allying with traditional business elites.

Autarky may be a policy of a state or other entity when it seeks to be self-sufficient as a whole, but also can be limited to a narrow field such as possession of a key raw material. For example, many countries have a policy of autarky with respect to foodstuffs and water for national-security reasons. By contrast, autarky can result from economic isolation or from external circumstances in which a state or other entity reverts to localized production when it lacks currency or excess production to trade with the outside world.

Autarky is the quality of being self-sufficient. Usually the term is applied to political states or their economic systems. Autarky exists whenever an entity can survive or continue its activities without external assistance or international trade. If a self-sufficient economy also refuses all trade with the outside world then it is called a closed economy.<ref>Glossary of International Economics.</ref> Autarky is not necessarily an economic pheonomenon; for example, a military autarky would be a state that could defend itself without help from another country. Autarky can be said to be the policy of a state or other entity when it seeks to be self-sufficient as a whole, but also can be limited to a narrow field such as possession of a key raw material. For example, many countries have a policy of autarky with respect to foodstuffs<ref>http://aic.ucdavis.edu/research1/BerlinSumner.pdf</ref> and water for national security reasons.

Etymology

The word “autarky” is from the

, which means “self-sufficiency” (derived from αὐτο-, “self,” and ἀρκέω, “to suffice”). The term is sometimes confused with autocracy (Greek: αὐτoκρατία/αὐταρχία “government by single absolute ruler”) or autarchy (the idea of rejecting government and ruling oneself and no other).

Modern examples

Mercantilism was a policy followed by empires, especially in the 17th and 18th centuries, forbidding or limiting trade outside the empire. In the 1930s, autarky as a policy goal was sought by Nazi Germany, which maximized trade within its economic bloc and minimized external trade, particularly with the then world powers such as Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and France, with which it expected to go to war and consequently could not rely upon. The economic bloc wherein trade was maximized comprised countries that were economically weak—namely, those in South America, the Balkans and eastern Europe (Yugoslavia, Romania and Hungary)<ref>D. Evans & J. Jenkins, Years of Weimar & the Third Reich, (London: Hodder & Stoughton Educational, 1999), 348-349.</ref>—and had raw materials vital to Germany's growth. Trade with these countries, which was negotiated by then Minister of Economics Hjalmar Schacht, was based on the exchange of German manufactured produce directly for these materials rather than currency, allowing Schacht to barter without reliance on the strength of the Reichsmark.<ref>D. Evans & J. Jenkins, Years of Weimar & the Third Reich, 349</ref> However, although food imports fell significantly between 1932 and 1937, Germany's rapid rearmament policy after 1935 proved contradictory to the Nazi Party autarkic ambitions and imports of raw materials rose by 10% over the same period.

Today, complete economic autarkies are rare. A possible example of a current attempt at autarky is North Korea, based on the government ideology of Juche (self-sufficiency), which is concerned with maintaining its domestic localized economy in the face of its isolation. However, even North Korea has extensive trade with the Russian Federation, the People's Republic of China, Syria, Iran, Vietnam, and many countries in Europe and Africa. Bhutan, seeking to preserve a manorialist economic and cultural system centered around the dzong, had until the 1960s ://unctad.org/en/Docs/osg2011d1_en.pdf maintained an effective economic embargo against the outside world, and has been described as an autarky. With the introduction of roads and electricity, however, the kingdom has entered trade relations as its citizens seek modern, manufactured goods. North Korea has also had to import food during the 1990s due to widespread famine.

Historical examples

See also

Local Autarky

National Autarky

Left-Wing proponents of Autarkic Principles:

:Statist: :*Socialism in One Country, State Socialism and Stalinism :*Syndicalism :*Social corporatism and Neo-Corporatism : :Anti-Statist: :*Anarcho-syndicalism, De Leonism, Solidarity Unionism, :*Anarchist Communism, Council Communism, Collectivist Anarchism :*Solidarity Economy : Left-Wing opponents of Autarkic Principles:

Right-Wing proponents of Autarkic Principles:

Right-Wing opponents of Autarkic Principles:

Autarkic principles without political affiliation:

Macroeconomic Theory of Autarky

Proponents or Partial-Proponents of Autarky:

Opponents of Autarky:

Relevant Microeconomic Theory Topics

References

Fair Use References are embedded in the above article as footnotes.

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External links

autarky.txt · Last modified: 2020/03/12 18:31 (external edit)