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Snippet from Wikipedia: AA battery

The AA battery, also called a double A, penlite or Mignon (French for "cute" or "adorable") battery, is a standard size single cell cylindrical dry battery. The IEC 60086 system calls it size R6, and ANSIC18 calls it size 15. It is named UM-3 by JIS of Japan. Historically, it is known as D14 (standard cell) or HP7 (for zinc chloride 'high power' version) in official documentation in the United Kingdom.

AA batteries are common in portable electronic devices. An AA battery is composed of a single electrochemical cell that may be either a primary battery (disposable) or a rechargeable battery. Several different chemistries are used for their construction. The exact terminal voltage, capacity and practical discharge rates depend on cell chemistry; however, devices designed for AA cells will usually only take 1.2-1.5 V unless specified by the manufacturer.

Introduced in 1907 by The American Ever Ready Company, the AA battery size was standardized by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) in 1947, but it had been in use in flashlights and electrical novelties before formal standardization. ANSI and IEC Battery nomenclature gives several designations for cells in this size, depending on cell features and chemistry. Due to their popularity in small flashlights, they are often called "penlight batteries".

An AA battery also called “double A” or Mignon battery is a standard size of a single cell cylindrical dry battery; in the IEC system it is referred to as an “R6” size.<ref name=autogenerated1>Classic (LR6)</ref> AA batteries are commonly used in portable electronic devices. An AA battery is composed of a single electrochemical cell which may be either a primary battery (disposable) or a rechargeable battery. The exact terminal voltage and capacity of an AA size battery depends on the cell chemistry. AA batteries account for over 50% of general battery sales.

The AA battery size was standardized by the American National Standards Institute in 1947, but had been used in flashlights and electrical novelties for some time before formal standardization. Battery nomenclature gives different designations depending on cell size and chemistry. For example, a zinc–carbon (Leclanché) AA cell is designated “15” by ANSI, and R6 in the system.

Dimensions

An AA battery measures

in length including the button terminal—and

in diameter. The positive terminal button should be a minimum 1mm high and a maximum 5.5mm in diameter, the flat negative terminal should be a minimum diameter of 7mm.<ref name=autogenerated1 />

Alkaline AA batteries have a mass of roughly

, lithium AA batteries have a mass around

, and rechargeable NiMH batteries around

.

Chemistry and capacity

Primary cells

Primary (non-rechargeable) zinc–carbon (dry cell) AA batteries have around 400–900 milliamp-hours capacity, with measured capacity highly dependent on test conditions, duty cycle, and cut-off voltage. Zinc–carbon batteries are usually marketed as “general purpose” batteries. Zinc-chloride batteries store around 1000 to 1500&nbsp;mAh are often sold as “heavy duty” or “super heavy duty”. Alkaline batteries from 1700&nbsp;mAh to 3000&nbsp;mAh cost more than zinc-chloride batteries, but last proportionally longer.

Non-rechargeable lithium batteries are manufactured for devices that use a lot of power such as digital cameras, where their high cost is offset by longer running time between battery changes and more constant voltage during discharge.

Rechargeable cells

Rechargeable batteries in the AA size are available in multiple chemistries: nickel–cadmium (NiCd) with a capacity of 500–1100&nbsp;mAh,

nickel–metal hydride (NiMH) in various capacities of 1300–2900&nbsp;mAh<ref>AA NiMh example</ref> and lithium ion. Lithium ion chemistry has a nominal voltage of 3.6 volts. They are referred to as 14500 li-ion batteries.

Nickel-zinc (NiZn) AAs are also available, but not widely so.

Comparison

Type Zinc–carbon Alkaline Li-FeS<sub>2</sub> NiCd NiMH NiZn
IEC name R6 LR6 FR6 KR6 HR6 ZR6
ANSI/NEDA name 15D 15A 15LF 1.2K2 1.2H2 ?
Capacity under 50 mA constant drain 400-1700 mAh 1800-2600 mAh 2700-3400 mAh 600– 1000 mAh 600–2850 mAh 1500-1800 mAh
Nominal voltage 1.5 V 1.5 V 1.5 V 1.2 V 1.2 V 1.65 V
Max. capacity at nominal voltage and 50 mA drain 2.55 Wh 3.90 Wh 5.10 Wh 1.20 Wh 3.42 Wh 2.97 Wh
Rechargeable No No No<ref>Lithium Iron Disulfide, Handbook and Application Manual</ref> Yes Yes Yes

Use

In 2011, AA batteries accounted for approximately 60% of alkaline battery sales in the United States. In Japan, 58% of alkaline batteries sold were AA. In Switzerland, AA batteries totaled 55% in both primary and secondary (rechargeable) battery sales.<ref>Absatzzahlen 2008 INOBAT 2008 statistics.</ref><ref>Life Cycle Impacts of Alkaline Batteries with a Focus on End-of-Life - EPBA-EU</ref><ref>Monthly battery sales statistics - MoETI - March 2011</ref>

See also

References

aa_battery.txt · Last modified: 2020/03/12 18:31 (external edit)